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The Catechism of the Catholic Church Today on the Church and the Authority of the Catholic Church.


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II. The Church's Origin, Foundation And Mission


758 We begin our investigation of the Church's mystery by meditating on her origin in the Holy Trinity's plan and her progressive realization in history.

A plan born in the Father's heart


759 "The eternal Father, in accordance with the utterly gratuitous and mysterious design of his wisdom and goodness, created the whole universe and chose to raise up men to share in his own divine life," to which he calls all men in his Son. "The Father . . . determined to call together in a holy Church those who should believe in Christ." This "family of God" is gradually formed and takes shape during the stages of human history, in keeping with the Father's plan. In fact, "already present in figure at the beginning of the world, this Church was prepared in marvelous fashion in the history of the people of Israel and the old Alliance. Established in this last age of the world and made manifest in the outpouring of the Spirit, it will be brought to glorious completion at the end of time." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 2)


The Church- foreshadowed from the world's beginning


760 Christians of the first centuries said, "The world was created for the sake of the Church." (cf. Aristides, Apol. 16,6; St. Justin, Apol. 2,7:PG 6,456; Tertullian, Apol. 31) God created the world for the sake of communion with his divine life, a communion brought about by the "convocation" of men in Christ, and this "convocation" is the Church. The Church is the goal of all things, (cf. St. Epiphanius, Panarion 1,1,5:PG 41,181C.) and God permitted such painful upheavals as the angels' fall and man's sin only as occasions and means for displaying all the power of his arm and the whole measure of the love he wanted to give the world: Just as God's will is creation and is called "the world," so his intention is the salvation of men, and it is called "the Church." (Clement of Alexandria., Pœd. 1,6,27)


The Church - prepared for in the Old Covenant


761 The gathering together of the People of God began at the moment when sin destroyed the communion of men with God, and that of men among themselves. The gathering together of the Church is, as it were, God's reaction to the chaos provoked by sin. This reunification is achieved secretly in the heart of all peoples: "In every nation anyone who fears him and does what is right is acceptable" to God. (Acts 10:35; cf. Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 9; 13; 16)


762 The remote preparation for this gathering together of the People of God begins when he calls Abraham and promises that he will become the father of a great people. (cf. Genesis 12:2; 15:5-6) Its immediate preparation begins with Israel's election as the People of God. By this election, Israel is to be the sign of the future gathering of all nations. (cf. Exodus 19:5-6; Deuteronomy 7:6; Isaiah 2:2-5; Micah 4:1-4) But the prophets accuse Israel of breaking the covenant and behaving like a prostitute. They announce a new and eternal covenant. "Christ instituted this New Covenant."
Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 9; cf. Hosea 1; Isaiah 1:2-4; Jeremiah 2; 31:31-34; Isaiah 55:3)


The Church - instituted by Christ Jesus


763 It was the Son's task to accomplish the Father's plan of salvation in the fullness of time. Its accomplishment was the reason for his being sent. (cf. Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 3; Ad Gentes 3) "The Lord Jesus inaugurated his Church by preaching the Good News, that is, the coming of the Reign of God, promised over the ages in the scriptures." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 5) To fulfill the Father's will, Christ ushered in the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. The Church "is the Reign of Christ already present in mystery." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 3)


764 "This Kingdom shines out before men in the word, in the works and in the presence of Christ." To welcome Jesus' word is to welcome "the Kingdom itself." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 5) The seed and beginning of the Kingdom are the "little flock" of those whom Jesus came to gather around him, the flock whose shepherd he is. (Luke 12:32; cf. Matthew 10:16; 26:31; John 10:1-21) They form Jesus' true family. (cf. Matthew 12:49) To those whom he thus gathered around him, he taught a new "way of acting" and a prayer of their own. (cf. Matthew 5-6)


765 The Lord Jesus endowed his community with a structure that will remain until the Kingdom is fully achieved. Before all else there is the choice of the Twelve with Peter as their head. (cf. Mark 3:14-15) Representing the twelve tribes of Israel, they are the foundation stones of the new Jerusalem. (cf. Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30; Revelation 21:12-14) The Twelve and the other disciples share in Christ's mission and his power, but also in his lot. (cf. Mark 6:7; Luke 10:1-2; Matthew 10:25; John 15:20) By all his actions, Christ prepares and builds his Church.


766 The Church is born primarily of Christ's total self-giving for our salvation, anticipated in the institution of the Eucharist and fulfilled on the cross. "The origin and growth of the Church are symbolized by the blood and water which flowed from the open side of the crucified Jesus." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 3; cf. John 19:34) "For it was from the side of Christ as he slept the sleep of death upon the cross that there came forth the 'wondrous sacrament of the whole Church.'" (Vatican II, Sacrosanctum Concilium 5) As Eve was formed from the sleeping Adam's side, so the Church was born from the pierced heart of Christ hanging dead on the cross. (cf. St. Ambrose, In Luc. 2,85-89:PL 15,1666-1668.)


The Church - revealed by the Holy Spirit


767 "When the work which the Father gave the Son to do on earth was accomplished, the Holy Spirit was sent on the day of Pentecost in order that he might continually sanctify the Church." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 4; cf. John 17:4) Then "the Church was openly displayed to the crowds and the spread of the Gospel among the nations, through preaching, was begun." (Vatican II, Ad Gentes 4) As the "convocation" of all men for salvation, the Church in her very nature is missionary, sent by Christ to all the nations to make disciples of them. (cf. Matthew 28:19-20; Vatican II, Ad Gentes 2; 5-6)


768 So that she can fulfill her mission, the Holy Spirit "bestows upon [the Church] varied hierarchic and charismatic gifts, and in this way directs her." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 4) "Henceforward the Church, endowed with the gifts of her founder and faithfully observing his precepts of charity, humility and self-denial, receives the mission of proclaiming and establishing among all peoples the Kingdom of Christ and of God, and she is on earth the seed and the beginning of that kingdom." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 5)


The Church - perfected in glory


769 "The Church . . . will receive its perfection only in the glory of Heaven," (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 48) at the time of Christ's glorious return. Until that day, "the Church progresses on her pilgrimage amidst this world's persecutions and God's consolations." (St. Augustine, De civ. Dei, 18,51:PL 41,614; cf. Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 8) Here below she knows that she is in exile far from the Lord, and longs for the full coming of the Kingdom, when she will "be united in glory with her king." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 5; Cf. 6; 2 Corinthians 5:6) The Church, and through her the world, will not be perfected in glory without great trials. Only then will "all the just from the time of Adam, 'from Abel, the just one, to the last of the elect,' . . . be gathered together in the universal Church in the Father's presence." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 2)



Paragraph 4. Christ's Faithful - Hierarchy, Laity, Consecrated Life


871 "The Christian faithful are those who, inasmuch as they have been incorporated in Christ through Baptism, have been constituted as the people of God; for this reason, since they have become sharers in Christ's priestly, prophetic, and royal office in their own manner, they are called to exercise the mission which God has entrusted to the Church to fulfill in the world, in accord with the condition proper to each one." (Code of Canon Law Can. 204 para 1; cf. Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 31)


872 "In virtue of their rebirth in Christ there exists among all the Christian faithful a true equality with regard to dignity and the activity whereby all cooperate in the building up of the Body of Christ in accord with each one's own condition and function." (Code of Canon Law Can. 208; Cf. Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 32)


873 The very differences which the Lord has willed to put between the members of his body serve its unity and mission. For "in the Church there is diversity of ministry but unity of mission. To the apostles and their successors Christ has entrusted the office of teaching, sanctifying and governing in his name and by his power. But the laity are made to share in the priestly, prophetical, and kingly office of Christ; they have therefore, in the Church and in the world, their own assignment in the mission of the whole People of God." (Vatican II, Apostolicam Actositatem 2) Finally, "from both groups [hierarchy and laity] there exist Christian faithful who are consecrated to God in their own special manner and serve the salvific mission of the Church through the profession of the evangelical counsels." (Code of Canon Law Can. 207 § 2)


I. The Hierarchical Constitution Of The Church


Why the ecclesial ministry?


874 Christ is himself the source of ministry in the Church. He instituted the Church. He gave her authority and mission, orientation and goal:

In order to shepherd the People of God and to increase its numbers without cease, Christ the Lord set up in his Church a variety of offices which aim at the good of the whole body. The holders of office, who are invested with a sacred power, are, in fact, dedicated to promoting the interests of their brethren, so that all who belong to the People of God . . . may attain to salvation.


Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 18

875 "How are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? And how are they to hear without a preacher? And how can men preach unless they are sent?" (Romans 10:14:15) No one - no individual and no community - can proclaim the Gospel to himself: "Faith comes from what is heard." (Romans 10:17) No one can give himself the mandate and the mission to proclaim the Gospel. The one sent by the Lord does not speak and act on his own authority, but by virtue of Christ's authority; not as a member of the community, but speaking to it in the name of Christ. No one can bestow grace on himself; it must be given and offered. This fact presupposes ministers of grace, authorized and empowered by Christ. From him, bishops and priests receive the mission and faculty ("the sacred power") to act in persona Christi Capitis; deacons receive the strength to serve the people of God in the diaconia of liturgy, word and charity, in communion with the bishop and his presbyterate. The ministry in which Christ's emissaries do and give by God's grace what they cannot do and give by their own powers, is called a "sacrament" by the Church's tradition. Indeed, the ministry of the Church is conferred by a special sacrament.


876 Intrinsically linked to the sacramental nature of ecclesial ministry is its character as service. Entirely dependent on Christ who gives mission and authority, ministers are truly "slaves of Christ," (cf. Romans 1:1) in the image of him who freely took "the form of a slave" for us. (Philippians 2:7) Because the word and grace of which they are ministers are not their own, but are given to them by Christ for the sake of others, they must freely become the slaves of all. (cf. 1 Corinthians 9:19)


877 Likewise, it belongs to the sacramental nature of ecclesial ministry that it have a collegial character. In fact, from the beginning of his ministry, the Lord Jesus instituted the Twelve as "the seeds of the new Israel and the beginning of the sacred hierarchy." (Vatican II, Ad Gentes 5) Chosen together, they were also sent out together, and their fraternal unity would be at the service of the fraternal communion of all the faithful: they would reflect and witness to the communion of the divine persons. (cf. John 17:21-23) For this reason every bishop exercises his ministry from within the episcopal college, in communion with the bishop of Rome, the successor of St. Peter and head of the college. So also priests exercise their ministry from within the presbyterium of the diocese, under the direction of their bishop.


878 Finally, it belongs to the sacramental nature of ecclesial ministry that it have a personal character. Although Christ's ministers act in communion with one another, they also always act in a personal way. Each one is called personally: "You, follow me" (John 21:22; cf. Matthew 4:19-21; John 1:4) in order to be a personal witness within the common mission, to bear personal responsibility before him who gives the mission, acting "in his person" and for other persons: "I baptize you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit . . ."; "I absolve you . . . ."


879 Sacramental ministry in the Church, then, is a service exercised in the name of Christ. It has a personal character and a collegial form. This is evidenced by the bonds between the episcopal college and its head, the successor of St. Peter, and in the relationship between the bishop's pastoral responsibility for his particular church and the common solicitude of the episcopal college for the universal Church.


The episcopal college and its head, the Pope


880 When Christ instituted the Twelve, "he constituted [them] in the form of a college or permanent assembly, at the head of which he placed Peter, chosen from among them." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 19; cf. Luke 6:13; John 21:15-17) Just as "by the Lord's institution, St. Peter and the rest of the apostles constitute a single apostolic college, so in like fashion the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are related with and united to one another." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 22; cf. Code of Canon Law can. 330)


881 The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the "rock" of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock. (cf. Matthew 16:18-19; John 21:15-17) "The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of apostles united to its head." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 22 § 2) This pastoral office of Peter and the other apostles belongs to the Church's very foundation and is continued by the bishops under the primacy of the Pope.


882 The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter's successor, "is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 23) "For the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 22; cf. Christus Dominus 2,9)


883 "The college or body of bishops has no authority unless united with the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, as its head." As such, this college has "supreme and full authority over the universal Church; but this power cannot be exercised without the agreement of the Roman Pontiff." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 22; cf. Code of Canon Law can 336)


884 "The college of bishops exercises power over the universal Church in a solemn manner in an ecumenical council." (Code of Canon Law can. 337 § 1) But "there never is an ecumenical council which is not confirmed or at least recognized as such by Peter's successor." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 22)


885 "This college, in so far as it is composed of many members, is the expression of the variety and universality of the People of God; and of the unity of the flock of Christ, in so far as it is assembled under one head." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 22)


886 "The individual bishops are the visible source and foundation of unity in their own particular Churches." As such, they "exercise their pastoral office over the portion of the People of God assigned to them," (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 23) assisted by priests and deacons. But, as a member of the episcopal college, each bishop shares in the concern for all the Churches. (cf. Vatican II, Christus Dominus 3) The bishops exercise this care first "by ruling well their own Churches as portions of the universal Church," and so contributing "to the welfare of the whole Mystical Body, which, from another point of view, is a corporate body of Churches." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 23) They extend it especially to the poor, (cf. Galatians 2:10) to those persecuted for the faith, as well as to missionaries who are working throughout the world.


887 Neighboring particular Churches who share the same culture form ecclesiastical provinces or larger groupings called patriarchates or regions. (cf. Apostolic Constitutions 34) The bishops of these groupings can meet in synods or provincial councils. "In a like fashion, the episcopal conferences at the present time are in a position to contribute in many and fruitful ways to the concrete realization of the collegiate spirit." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 23 § 3)


The teaching office


888 Bishops, with priests as co-workers, have as their first task "to preach the Gospel of God to all men," in keeping with the Lord's command. (Vatican II, Presbyterorum Ordinis 4; cf. Mark 16:15) They are "heralds of faith, who draw new disciples to Christ; they are authentic teachers" of the apostolic faith "endowed with the authority of Christ." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 25)


889 In order to preserve the Church in the purity of the faith handed on by the apostles, Christ who is the Truth willed to confer on her a share in his own infallibility. By a "supernatural sense of faith" the People of God, under the guidance of the Church's living Magisterium, "unfailingly adheres to this faith." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 12; cf. Dei Verbum 10)


890 The mission of the Magisterium is linked to the definitive nature of the covenant established by God with his people in Christ. It is this Magisterium's task to preserve God's people from deviations and defections and to guarantee them the objective possibility of professing the true faith without error. Thus, the pastoral duty of the Magisterium is aimed at seeing to it that the People of God abides in the truth that liberates. To fulfill this service, Christ endowed the Church's shepherds with the charism of infallibility in matters of faith and morals. The exercise of this charism takes several forms:


891 "The Roman Pontiff, head of the college of bishops, enjoys this infallibility in virtue of his office, when, as supreme pastor and teacher of all the faithful - who confirms his brethren in the faith he proclaims by a definitive act a doctrine pertaining to faith or morals. . . . The infallibility promised to the Church is also present in the body of bishops when, together with Peter's successor, they exercise the supreme Magisterium," above all in an Ecumenical Council. (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 25) When the Church through its supreme Magisterium proposes a doctrine "for belief as being divinely revealed," (Vatican II, Dei Verbum 10 § 2) and as the teaching of Christ, the definitions "must be adhered to with the obedience of faith." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 25 § 2) This infallibility extends as far as the deposit of divine Revelation itself. (cf. Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 25)


892 Divine assistance is also given to the successors of the apostles, teaching in communion with the successor of Peter, and, in a particular way, to the bishop of Rome, pastor of the whole Church, when, without arriving at an infallible definition and without pronouncing in a "definitive manner," they propose in the exercise of the ordinary Magisterium a teaching that leads to better understanding of Revelation in matters of faith and morals. To this ordinary teaching the faithful "are to adhere to it with religious assent" (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 25) which, though distinct from the assent of faith, is nonetheless an extension of it.


The sanctifying office


893 The bishop is "the steward of the grace of the supreme priesthood," (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 26) especially in the Eucharist which he offers personally or whose offering he assures through the priests, his co-workers. The Eucharist is the center of the life of the particular Church. The bishop and priests sanctify the Church by their prayer and work, by their ministry of the word and of the sacraments. They sanctify her by their example, "not as domineering over those in your charge but being examples to the flock." (1 Peter 5:3) Thus, "together with the flock entrusted to them, they may attain to eternal life." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 26 § 3)


The governing office


894 "The bishops, as vicars and legates of Christ, govern the particular Churches assigned to them by their counsels, exhortations, and example, but over and above that also by the authority and sacred power" which indeed they ought to exercise so as to edify, in the spirit of service which is that of their Master. (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 27; cf. Luke 22:26-27)


895 "The power which they exercise personally in the name of Christ, is proper, ordinary, and immediate, although its exercise is ultimately controlled by the supreme authority of the Church." (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 27) But the bishops should not be thought of as vicars of the Pope. His ordinary and immediate authority over the whole Church does not annul, but on the contrary confirms and defends that of the bishops. Their authority must be exercised in communion with the whole Church under the guidance of the Pope.


896 The Good Shepherd ought to be the model and "form" of the bishop's pastoral office. Conscious of his own weaknesses, "the bishop . . . can have compassion for those who are ignorant and erring. He should not refuse to listen to his subjects whose welfare he promotes as of his very own children. . . . The faithful . . . should be closely attached to the bishop as the Church is to Jesus Christ, and as Jesus Christ is to the Father": (Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 27 § 2)


Let all follow the bishop, as Jesus Christ follows his Father, and the college of presbyters as the apostles; respect the deacons as you do God's law. Let no one do anything concerning the Church in separation from the bishop.


St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Smyrn. 8,1: Apostolic Fathers,II/2,309

In Brief

778 The Church is both the means and the goal of God's plan: prefigured in creation, prepared for in the Old Covenant, founded by the words and actions of Jesus Christ, fulfilled by his redeeming cross and his Resurrection, the Church has been manifested as the mystery of salvation by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit. She will be perfected in the glory of Heaven as the assembly of all the redeemed of the earth. (cf. Revelation 14:4)


779 The Church is both visible and spiritual, a hierarchical society and the Mystical Body of Christ. She is one, yet formed of two components, human and divine. That is her mystery, which only faith can accept.


780 The Church in this world is the sacrament of salvation, the sign and the instrument of the communion of God and men.



  1. St. Ignatius of Antioch, (A.D. 50-107)
    Pope St. Clement I of Rome, (A.D. 60-97),
    St. Polycarp of Smyrma, (A.D. 69-169)
    St. Theophilus of Antioch, (unknown - A.D. c.186)
    St. Irenæus of Lyons, (A.D. 125-202)
    St. Clement of Alexandria, (A.D. 150-220)
    Tertullian, (A.D. 160-218)
    Origen of Alexandria, (A.D. 184-253)
    St. Cyprian of Carthage, (A.D. 200-258)
    Lactantius, (A.D. 240-c.330)
    St. Methodius of Olympus, (A.D. 250-311)
    St. Alexander of Alexandria, (c. A.D. 250-325)
    Hosius of Cordova, (A.D. 256-358)
    Eusebius of Cæsarea, (A.D. c.263-338)
    The Apostolic Constitutions (or Constitutions of the Holy Apostles), (A.D. c.270)
    Lucifer of Cagliagi, (unknown-371)
    St. Athanasius of Alexandria, (A.D. 296-372)
    Pope St. Damasus I, (A.D. 304-384)
    St. Ephrem the Syrian, (of Edessa), (A.D. 306-378)
    St. Pacian of Barcelona, (A.D. c.310-375)
    Didymus the Blind, surnamed of Alexandria, (A.D. 313-398)
    Council of Arles, (held in A.D. 314)
    St. Hilary of Poitiers, (A.D. 315-367)
    St. Cyril of Jerusalem, (A.D. 315-386)
    St. Gregory of Nazianzen, (A.D. 318-389)
    St. Basil the Great, (A.D. 328-379)
    St. Epiphanius of Salamis, (A.D. 332-403)
    St. Gregory of Nyssa, (A.D. c.335 - c.394)
    St. Ambrose of Milan, (A.D. 340-396)
    St. Jerome, (A.D. 342-420)
    St. John Chrysostom, (A.D. 344 - 407)
    St. Gaudentius of Brescia, (unknown - A.D. 410)
    St. Paulinus of Nola, (A.D. 353-431)
    St. Augustine of Hippo, (A.D. 354-428)
    St. John Cassian, (A.D. c.360 - 433)
    Paulus Orosius (A.D. c.375-c.418)
    St. Cyril of Alexandria, (A.D. 376-444)
    Socrates of Constantinople, (A.D. c.380-c.440)
    St. Prosper of Aquitain, (A.D.c.390- c.463)
    Pope St. Leo I, ( A.D. c.391-461)
    Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus, (A.D. 393-458)
    Blessed Isaias, (lived in the 4th century)
    St. Vincent of Lérins, (A.D. c.400-445)
    St. Peter Chrysologus, (A.D. 406 - 450)
    Pope St. Celestine I, (unknown - A.D. 432)
    Capreolus of Carthage, (c. A.D. late 4th century - A.D. 437)
    St. Isidore of Pelusium, (unknown - A.D. 440)
    Salonius, (flourished/wrote A.D. c.445)
    St. Theodotus of Ancyra, (unknown-A.D. 446)
  2. Arnobius Junior, (flourished in the 5th century, A.D. c.460)
St. Ignatius of Antioch, (A.D. 50-107), Syrian; ecclesiastical writer, bishop, martyr. A disciple of St. John, the Apostle; he was bishop of Antioch, in which see he succeeded St. Peter, or, as others think, Evodius. He is supposed to have governed that church for about forty years. He suffered martyrdom at Rome in the year 107.

From his various epistles:

4. "It becomes you to concur in the mind of your bishop, as also ye do. For your famous presbytery, worthy of God, is knit as closely to the bishop, as strings to a harp."

5. "Let no man deceive you; if a man be not within the altar, he faileth of the bread of God. For if the prayer of one or two have such force, how much more that of the bishop and of the whole Church! He therefore that does not come together into the same place (with it), he is proud already, and hath condemned himself. For it is written, "God resisteth the proud" (James 4) Let us take heed, therefore, that we do not set ourselves against the bishop, that we may be set under God.

6. "And the more any seeth the bishop keep silence, the more let him fear him. For whomsoever the Master of the house sendeth to his own household, we ought so to receive, as (we would) Him that sent him. It is plain, then, that, "We ought to look to the bishop, as to the Lord Himself."

20. "Obeying the bishop and the presbytery with an entire mind; breaking one bread, which is the medicine of immortality; an antidote that we should not die, but live forever in Jesus Christ."

Ep. ad Ephes.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 12-13

3. "It becometh you also not to make free with the youthfulness of your bishop, but, according to the power of God the Father, to concede to him all reverence, as I am aware the holy presbyters do, taking no occasion from his apparent youthful ordination (or state), but, as men wise in God, submitting to him; yet not to him, but to the Father of Jesus Christ, the Bishop of all. Meet therefore it is, that, for the honor of Him who favors us, ye should obey without any hypocrisy, since it is not that a man deceives this bishop that is seen, but he trifles with Him who is not seen. And in this way, the question is not with flesh, but with God who seeth the secrets."

6. "I exhort, that ye study to do all things in the unanimity of God; the bishop holding presidency, in the place of God; and the presbyters in the place of the council of the Apostles; and the deacons, most dear to me, entrusted with the service of Jesus Christ. Be ye made one with the bishop, and with those who preside, for an example and lesson of incorruption.

7. "As therefore our Lord, being united (with the Father), did nothing without Him, neither by Himself, nor by his Apostles, so neither do you do anything apart from the bishop and the presbyters. Neither attempt ye anything that seems good to your own judgment, but let there be in the same place one prayer, one supplication, one mind, one hope, in love, in joy undefiled. There is one Jesus Christ, than whom nothing is better. Wherefore, haste ye all together as unto the temple of God; as unto one altar, as unto one Jesus Christ."

Ep. ad Magnesianos.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 13-14

2. "For inasmuch as you are subject to the bishop, as to Jesus Christ? you seem to me to be living not according to man, but according to Jesus Christ, who died for our sake, that believing on His death, ye may escape death. It is therefore necessary, not to do anything apart from the bishop, but to be subject to him and to the presbytery, as to the Apostles of Jesus Christ, our hope, in whom may we be found living. It is requisite, too, that the deacons of the mysteries of Jesus Christ should please all men in every manner; for they are not deacons (ministers) of meat and drink, but servants of God's church. They must therefore guard against imputations, as against fire.

3. "Likewise, let all men give heed to the deacons, as Jesus Christ, as also the bishop, being the Son of the Father; to the presbyters, as a council of God, and a land of Apostles. Apart from these, it is not called a church."

7. "Guard against such men (heretics). You will be guarded if ye are not puffed up, nor separated from the God Jesus Christ, and from the bishop, and from the regulations of the Apostles. He that is within the altar is pure; but he that is without is not pure: that is, he who does something apart from bishop and presbytery and deacon, he is not clean in conscience."

13. "Subject [yourself] to the bishop, as to the commandment, and likewise to the presbytery."

Ep. ad Trallian.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 14-15

7. "I cried out while I was among you; I spake with a loud voice: "Give heed to the bishop, and to the presbytery, and to deacons." Now some suspected that I spake this as knowing beforehand the division of some. But He is my witness, for whom I am in bonds, that I knew it not from the flesh of man; but from the Spirit proclaimed, saying, "Apart from the bishop do nothing: keep your flesh as the temple of God: love unity: avoid divisions: be ye followers of Jesus Christ, even as He is of His Father."

Ep. ad Philadelph
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 15

7. "Avoid divisions as the beginning of evils."

8. "Follow the bishop all of you, even as Jesus Christ the Father; and the body of presbyters, as the Apostles. Respect the deacons, as a commandment of God. Let no one do any thing pertaining to the church apart from the bishop."

"Let that be esteemed a sure Eucharist, which is either under the bishop, or him to whom he may commit it. Where the bishop is, there let the multitude (of believers) be; even as where Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church. Apart from the bishop it is neither lawful to baptize, nor to hold an agape; a but whatever he judges right, that also is well-pleasing unto God, that all which is done may be safe and sure."

9."It is good to regard God and the bishop. Who so honors the bishop, he is honored of God; but he who does something and hides it from the bishop, worships the devil."

Ep. ad Smyrnaeos.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 15-16

6. "Give heed unto the bishop, that God may also hearken unto you. My soul for the soul of those who are in subjection to the bishop, presbyters, deacons, and may my portion be with them in the Lord."

Ep. ad Polycarpum.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 16

Pope St. Clement I of Rome, (A.D. 60-97), Roman; Pope from A.D. 88-97; martyr. That St. Clement was honored by the friendship of the great Apostle, St. Peter, is not doubted. There are good reasons to believe that he was designated by that Apostle as his successor in the see of Rome. The authenticity and genuineness of St. Clement's First Epistle to the Corinthians are acknowledged. We learn from Eusebius and from other writers, that it was publicly read in many churches. This second epistle is the oldest extant Christian homily we have attributed to him, (A.D. 150).

It is shameful, my beloved, it is most shameful, and unworthy of your Christian profession, that it should be heard that the most firm and ancient church of the Corinthians, on account of one or two persons, is in a sedition against the priests. . . Who, then, amongst you is generous? who that is compassionate? who that is filled with charity? To those who laid the foundation of this sedition, submit yourselves to the priests, and be instructed unto repentance. Bending the knees of your hearts, learn to be subject, laying aside all proud and arrogant boasting of your tongues; for it is better for you to be found in the sheepfold of Christ, little and approved, than, thinking yourselves above others, to be cast out of His hope."

Eph. i. ad Cor. n. 47, 54, 57.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, Pages 11-12

St. Polycarp of Smyrma, (A.D. 69-169), Asia Minor; bishop, defender of orthodoxy, martyr; appointed Bishop of Smyrna by the Apostle St. John.

In like manner, deacons blameless in the sight of His righteousness, as the ministers of God in Christ, and not of men. . . . Wherefore it is necessary that ye abstain from all these things, "being subject to the presbyters and deacons as unto God and Christ."

Ep. ad Philippens.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 16

St. Theophilus of Antioch, (unknown - A.D. c.186), Patriarch of Antioch, born pagan but embraced Christianity by studying the Holy Scriptures, especially the prophetical books. Wrote against idols, made contributions to Christian literature, polemics, exegetics, and apologetics.

"The world, we say, is to us an image of the sea. For as the sea, if it had not the influx and supply of rivers and springs to feed it, would, through its saltness, long since have disappeared; so also the world, if it had not the law of God and the prophets, pouring forth and welling meekness and mercy and righteousness, and the doctrine of the holy commandments of God, would, through the wickedness and sinfulness multiplied within it, have already ceased to be. And as in the sea there are inhabited and well-watered and fruitful islands, with ports and harbors, that they that are tempest-tossed may find shelter in them; so to the world, agitated and tossed by sins, God hath given the synagogues — I mean holy churches — in which, as in harbors, in islands well protected from the sea, are the doctrines of the truth; unto which (churches) they who wish to be saved fly, becoming enamored of the truth, and wishing to flee from the anger and judgment of God. And as, on the other hand, there are other islands rocky and dry and fruitless, tenanted by wild beasts and uninhabited by man — to the destruction of sea men and the tempest-tossed — on which vessels are dashed, and they who come unto them perish; so are there the doctrines of error — I mean of the heresies which utterly destroy those who come unto them. For they are not guided by the word of the truth, but as pirates, when they have filled their vessels, impel them against the aforesaid places in order to destroy them, so too does it befall those who wander from the truth, to be utterly destroyed by error."

Ad Autolychum, l. ii. n. 14, p. 359, ed. Bened. S. Justini, Paris. 1742.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 16-17

St. Irenæus of Lyons, (A.D. 125-202), Asia Minor; bishop, missionary, theologian, defender of orthodoxy. Though by birth a Greek, he was Bishop of Lyons in the second century. He tells us that, in his early youth, he learned the rudiments of religion from St. Polycarp, the disciple of St. John the Apostle. He wrote several works, of which only a few fragments are now known, with the exception of his Treatise against Heretics which we have in five books.

1. "There being such proofs to look to, we ought not still to seek amongst others for truth which it is easy to receive from the Church, seeing that the Apostles most fully committed unto this Church, as unto a rich repository, all whatsoever is of truth, that everyone that wishes to may draw out of it the drink of life. For this is the gate of life; but all others are thieves and robbers. Therefore we ought to avoid them, but to cling with the utmost care to whatever is of the church, and to hold fast to the tradition of truth. For what? Even if there should be a dispute about any trifling point, ought we not to have recourse to the most ancient churches, in which Apostles resided, and from them to take whatever is certain and really clear on the existing dispute? But what if the Apostles had not left us writings: would it not have been needful to follow the order of that tradition which they delivered to those to whom they committed the churches?"

2. "An ordinance to which many of the barbarous nations who believe in Christ assent, having salvation written, with out paper and ink, by the Spirit, in their hearts, and sedulously guarding the old tradition." (St. Irenæus then gives a brief summary of Christian truths held by those nations, and proceeds as follows: — "They who, without the aid of letters, have believed this faith, are, as far as our language is concerned, untutored (barbarians), but as regards opinion and custom and conversation, they are, through faith, pre-eminently wise, and are well-pleasing unto God, having their conversation in all justice, and chastity, and wisdom. To these, if any one, addressing them in their own language, should have announced the things that have been invented by heretics, they would at once have stopped their ears, and have fled far away, not enduring even to hear the blasphemous address. Thus, through that ancient tradition of the Apostles they admit not even into their minds conception whatever of monstrous assertion proceeds from these men; for amongst them there was, hitherto, no such congregation nor doctrine instituted."

3. "For before Valentinus there were no Valentinians, nor Marcionites before Marcion, nor, in fact, any of the other malignant sentiments enumerated above, before there arose inventors and beginners of each perverse opinion. But the rest, called Gnostics, who derive their origin, as we have shown, from Menander, Simon's disciple, each of them of that opinion which he adopted, of it he was seen to be the parent and high-priest. But all these fell much later into their apostasy, during the mid period of the duration of the Church."

Adv. Hæres. L. iii. c. iv. pp. 178, 179, Ed. Ben. Paris. 1742.
See also Adv. Hæres. L. iii. Praefat.p. 173.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 17-19

1. "Tradition, therefore, which is from the Apostles being thus in the Church, and continuing amongst us, let us return to that proof which is from the writings of those who wrote the Gospels."

Note that Irenæus is not referring to the writings of the Gospels, but to "other" writings pertaining to tradition, that the Gospel writers wrote.

Adv. Hæres. L. iii. c. v. n. i. p. 179.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 19

"In the Church, saith he, God hath placed apostles, prophets, doctors, and every other operation of the Spirit, of which all they are not partakers who do not hasten to the Church, but by their evil sentiment and most flagrant conduct, defraud themselves of life. For where the Church is, there is the Spirit of God, and where the Spirit of God is, there is the Church and every grace; but the Spirit is truth. Wherefore, they who do not partake of it, are neither nourished unto life from the breasts of a mother, nor see the most clear spring which flows from Christ's body, but dig unto themselves broken cisterns out of earthy trenches, and out of the filth drink foul water, fleeing from the faith of the Church, lest they be brought back; but rejecting the Spirit that they may not be instructed."

Adv. Hæres. L. iii. c. 24, n. I, p. 223.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 19-20

"Wherefore, we ought to obey those presbyters who are in the Church, those who have a succession from the Apostles, as we have shown; who, with the succession of the episcopate, have received, according to the good will of the Father, the sure gift (grace) of truth; but the rest, who depart from the principal succession, and assemble in any place whatever (or, in whatever place they may assemble), we ought to hold suspected, either as heretics, and of an evil opinion, or as schematics and proud, and as men pleasing themselves; or, again, as hypocrites doing this for gain's sake and vain-glory."

Adv. Hæres. L. iv. c. xxvi. n. 2, p. 262.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 20

"And, indeed, the preaching (or, public teaching) of the Church, in which one and the same way of salvation is set forth throughout the whole world, is true and firm. For to this (Church) has been entrusted the light of God, and on this account is the wisdom of God, through which He saves all men, "proclaimed" in the "gates" (outlets); "in the streets she acts confidently". . . . For everywhere the Church preaches the truth; and this is the lamp with seven branches, which bears the light of Christ."

2. "They, therefore, who abandon the teaching of the Church, condemn the holy presbyters of ignorance; not considering how much preferable is a religious, though untutored individual, to a blasphemous and impudent sophist."

Adv. Hæres. L. v. c. xx. n. 1, 2, p. 317.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 20-21

St. Clement of Alexandria, (A.D. 150-220), Greek; theologian, a scholar of Pantaenus, to whom he succeeded as head of the Catechetical School at Alexandria, Egypt. His writings display great acquaintance with the Gentile philosophy. He wrote with the express design of hiding the mysteries of the Christian religion from the Pagans, and the uninitiated, while at the same time, laboring to show the immense practical superiority of the Christian code of morals over that of every Pagan sect and system of philosophy.

Explaining why Christians are called "children" and Christ "a man"; he says:

"The Apostle, writing to the Ephesians, has very clearly manifested what we are seeking after, saying thus — Until we all meet in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the age of the fullness of Christ, that henceforth we be no more children tossed to and fro, and carried about by every wind of doctrine by the wickedness of men, by cunning craftiness, by which they lie in wait to deceive. (Ephesians 4:14), saying these things unto the building up of the body of Christ, who is a head and a man, the alone perfect in righteousness; but we children, avoiding the winds of heresies which puff up to swelling pride, "and not believing those who teach otherwise than the fathers", are then perfected, when we are a Church, having received Christ, the head."

[Continuing the explanation of the word "child," he quotes Isaiah 66:12,13:]

"Their children," he saith, "shall be carried upon the shoulders, and upon the knees they shall be comforted. As one whom a mother comforts, so also will I comfort you. The mother brings unto her, her children, and we seek the mother the Church."

Paedag. L. i. c. 5, p. 108- 110.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 21-22

"Oh pupils of a blessed education, let us complete the beautiful person of the Church, and let us run, like children, to the good mother; and if we are hearers of the Word, let us glorify the blessed economy, through which man is instructed, and sanctified as the child of God, and becomes a citizen of Heaven ; his instruction having been carried on below, and he then receives, as a father, Him whom he learns on earth. The Word both does, and teaches, all things, and acts the part of the Paedagogue in all things . . . . And since the Paedagogue, having brought us unto the Church, has united us to Himself, to the Word, the teacher and universal overseer, it would be well for us, being there, to send up to the Lord, as a return of just thanksgiving, praise befitting a good education."

Paedag. L. iii. pp. 310, 311.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 22

"An excellent thing the city and the people. . . governed by law, as, by the Word, the Church; which is a city on earth, impregnable, and free from tyranny; the divine will on earth, as (it is) in Heaven."

Stromat. L. iv.p. 642.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 23

"They who will, may discover the truth. We may learn demonstratively, through the Scriptures themselves, how the heresies have fallen away, and how in the alone truth, and in the ancient Church, there is the most accurate knowledge, and the truly best election."

Strom. L. vii. p. 888.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 23

St. Clement makes various incidental allusions throughout his writings. The priest and author of "The Faith of Catholics", the Right Rev. Thomas Capel has collected a few. Though he gives references for each statement, to save space, I have omitted them from the following list:

— We are perfect when we become a Church.
— We seek the mother, the Church.
— The Church is the spouse of Christ, and to her He has given the firm name, Patience.
— Christ looks upon His only Church.
— And she remains rejoicing unto all ages.
— The will of God is man's salvation, and this will is called the Church, which consists of those whom God called and saved.
— The Church is at once a virgin and a mother; a virgin in purity, a mother in affection.
— The Church is the holy mountain, the Church on high above the clouds, touching the heavens.
— It is called the kingdom of God, the heavenly assembly of love, the holy Church.
— They knew not why the Lord did not marry. But, in the first place, He had His own spouse, the Church.
— The Church on earth is the image of the Church in Heaven.
— The Church is the congregation of the elect.
— The spiritual and holy choir forming the spiritual part of the body of Christ, of which they who only bear the name of Christians, but do not live according to reason, are the flesh.

Tertullian, (A.D. 160-218), North African; ecclesiastical writer, Christian apologist and lawyer, son of a centurion and contemporary of St. Irenæus, a native and citizen of Carthage. The zeal and ability with which he defended the Christian cause, and vindicated its faith and discipline, have immortalized his name, though it has suffered by his adoption, around the year A.D. 200, of some of the Montanist's errors, whose cause he is thought to have supported until his death. His works are numerous, and are written with great ability and erudition, but in an harsh style.

"It is not lawful for us to introduce (indulge) anything of our own choice, as neither is it to choose that which any one may have introduced of his own choice. We have for our authors the Apostles of the Lord, who did not even themselves choose anything to be introduced of their own will, but faithfully delivered over to the nations the religion (disciplinam) which they had received from Christ."

De Praescrip. Haeret. n. 6, p. 203.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 23-24

"Now what the Apostles preached, that is, what Christ revealed unto them, I will here also rule, must be proved in no other way than by those same churches which the Apostles themselves founded; themselves by preaching to them as well viva voice, as men say, as afterwards by epistles. If these things be so, it becomes forthwith manifest that all doctrine which agrees with those Apostolic churches, the wombs and originals of the faith, must be accounted true, as without doubt containing that which the churches have received from the Apostles, the Apostles from Christ, Christ from God; but that every doctrine must be judged at once to be false, which savors things contrary to the truth of the churches, and of the Apostles, and of Christ, and of God. It remains, therefore, that we show whether this our doctrine, the rule of which we have above declared, be derived from the tradition of the Apostles, and from this very fact, whether the other doctrines come from falsehoods. We have communion with the Apostolic churches, because we have no doctrine differing from them. This is evidence of truth."

De Praescrip. Haeret. n, 21, p. 209.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 24

The following is part of a valuable defense of the genuineness of St. Luke's Gospel, against Marcion:

"To sum up:

    • if it is certain that the truest is the most ancient
    • that most ancient is that which is from the beginning, and
    • that the beginning is that which comes from the Apostles

it will, in like manner, also be certain that, what has been handed down by the Apostles, shall have been held sacred by the churches of the Apostles. Let us see what milk the Corinthians drained from Paul; what the Philippians, the Thessalonians, the Ephesians read; also what the Romans close at hand trumpet forth, to whom both Peter and Paul left the Gospel sealed also with their blood. We have also the churches taught by John. For although Marcion rejects his Apocalypse, nevertheless the succession of bishops, counted up to their origin, will stand by John as the author. Thus also is the noble origin of the other churches recognized. I say, therefore, that the Gospel of Luke which we are principally defending, holds its place, from the first of its publication, amongst the churches, not the apostolic alone, but all which are covenanted with them by the fellowship of religion; whilst that of Marcion is to most not known, and known to none except to be therefore condemned. That Gospel too has churches, but its own; as of later date, as they are false, whose origin if you seek for, you will more easily find it apostate than apostolical; with Marcion, to wit the founder, or some one from Marcion's hive. Wasps, too, form nests; Marcionites, too, form churches. The same authority of the apostolic churches will defend the other Gospels also, which accordingly we have through those churches, and according to those churches, I mean the Gospel of John and Matthew. It is some such compendious arguments as these that we make use of, when we are arguing on the genuineness of the Gospel against heretics, defending both the order of time which rules against the posterior date of the falsifiers, and the authority of the churches which takes under its guardianship the tradition of the Apostles; because the truth must needs precede what is false, and proceed from those by whom it has been handed down.

Adv. Marcion, l. iv. n. 5, pp. 415, 416.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 25-26

Origen of Alexandria, (A.D. 184-253), Alexandrian; born in Egypt, philosopher, theologian, writer.

"They who have believed, and are persuaded that grace and truth have arisen through Jesus Christ, and that Christ is the truth, derive not the knowledge which impels men to live well and happily, from other source than the very words and teaching of Christ. But that He also, after His assumption into Heaven, spoke in His Apostles, Paul points out thus: "Or do you seek a proof that it is Christ that speaketh in me?" (2 Corinthians 13:3)

2. "Wherefore, since many of those who profess to believe in Christ, differ, not only in small and the most trifling, but also in great and the most important things, to wit, either respecting God, or the Lord Jesus Christ, or the Holy Spirit; and not only on these points, but also respecting the dominations and holy powers; therefore does it seem necessary, in the first place, with respect to each of these matters, to lay down a certain line and a manifest rule, and then, in the next place, to proceed to inquire about other matters. For as, though many of the Greeks and barbarians promise truth, we have ceased to seek for it amongst all those who with false opinions claim it, since we have believed that Christ is the Son of God, and we are convinced that it is to be learned by us from Him; so, there being many who fancy that they think the things of Christ, and some of them think differently from those who have gone before, let there be preserved the ecclesiastical teaching, which, transmitted by the order of succession from the Apostles, remains even to the present day in the churches: that alone is to be believed to be truth, which in nothing differs from the ecclesiastical and apostolical tradition."

De Principiis, t. i. l. 1. n. 1, 2, p. 47, ed. De la Rue, Paris. 1733.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 26-27

"As in the firmament, called Heaven, God commanded that there should be lights to divide night from day, so, too, in us may this take place, if so be that we strive both to be called and to be a Heaven: we shall have in us, as lights to enlighten us, Christ and His Church. For He is the light of the world, who also with His light enlightens the Church. For as the moon is said to derive light from the sun, that by it even the night may be illumined, so also the Church, having received the light of Christ, gives light to all who live in the night of ignorance. As the sun and moon give light to our bodies, so also are our minds enlightened by Christ and the Church."

T. ii. Hom. 1, In Genes, n. 5, 7, pp. 54, 55.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 27

Explaining Proverbs 5:15, 18, he says,

"Wherefore, do thou too try, oh hearer, to have thine own well, and thine own spring, that thou too, when thou shalt take hold of a book of the Scriptures, mayest begin, even from thine own understanding, to produce some meaning; and, according to those things which thou hast learned in the Church, do thou too try to drink from the spring of thine ability."

T. ii. Hom. xii. in Genes, n. $,p. 93.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 27-28

Commenting on the schism of Core and his adherents (Numbers 16), he says:

"Core is the type of those who rise up against the faith of the Church and the doctrine of truth. Therefore is it written concerning Core and his company, that in brazen censers they offered the incense of a strange fire. And the strange fire is indeed commanded by God to be scattered and poured forth; but the censers, because they are sanctified, make them into broad plates, and cover the altar with them, because they were offered before the Lord, and they are sanctified. (verse 38.) This, therefore, seems to me to be shown by this type, that these "censers" which the Scripture says were of "brass," are a type of the divine Scripture. Upon which Scripture, heretics putting "a strange fire", that is, a sense and meaning alien from God, and introducing a meaning contrary to the truth, offer to God an incense not sweet, but execrable. And therefore is a model given to the priests of the churches, that, if ever anything of the kind arise, the things that are alien from the truth be utterly banished from the Church of God: but if there be, even in the words of heretics, some things intermixed with the meanings of Scripture, that they are not to be repudiated together with those which are contrary to faith and truth; for the things that are produced from divine Scripture are hallowed and offered to the Lord."

T. ii. Hom. ix. in Numer. n. 1, pp. 295, 296.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 28

Explaining Matthew 24:23, "Then if any man shall say to you: Lo here is Christ, or there, do not believe him."

"These words are fulfilled by pointing out, not Christ, but some imaginary creature of the same name, as, for instance, one after the doctrine of Marcion, or the traditions of Valentinus. There will be many others too who will be ready to say to the disciples, out of the divine Scriptures, adding their own peculiar meaning: "Behold here is Christ". . . . But as often as they bring forward canonical Scriptures, in which every Christian agrees and believes, they seem to say: "Behold in the houses" is the word of truth. But we are not to credit them; nor to go out from the first and the ecclesiastical tradition; nor to believe otherwise than according as the churches of God have by succession transmitted to us."

T. iii. Series Comment, (alib. Tr. 29) in Matthew n. 46, p. 864.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 28-29

"The truth is like to the lightning which goeth out from the east, and appears in the west; such is the truth of the Church of God; for from it alone the sound hath gone forth into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world"

T. iii. Comment, in Matt. (Trac. 30), n. 46, p. 864.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 29

"According, then, to what we have said, they who teach the "Word according to the Church, are the prophets of God. Whilst they who preach the word of Marcion, or of any such, are the prophets of that antichrist that is according to Marcion, that is, of that falsehood which Marcion introduced. . . . The same say also of the preachers of each one of the heresies. . . We are not, therefore, to give heed to those who say "Behold here is Christ", but show Him not in the Church, which is filled with brightness from the east even unto the west, which is filled with true light, is the pillar and ground of truth, in which, as a whole, is the whole advent of the Son of Man, who saith to all men, throughout the universe, "Behold I am with you all the days of life, even unto the consummation of the world."

T. iii. Comment, in Matt. (Trac. 30), n. 46, p. 865, col. 2.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 29

St. Cyprian of Carthage, (A.D. 200-258), North African; bishop; biblical scholar, martyr.

"Our Lord, whose precepts and admonitions we ought to observe, settling the honor of a bishop and the nature of His Church, speaks in the Gospel and says to Peter, "And I say to thee: That thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my church," (St. Matthew 16:18, 19) Hence, through the changes of times and of successions, the ordination of bishops and the nature of the Church flows on (runs down), so as that the Church is settled upon the bishops, and every act of the Church is regulated by these same prelates. Since then this has been established by a divine law, I wonder that some should have had the bold temerity so to write to me as to pen their letters in the name of the Church, whereas the Church consisteth of the bishop and clergy, and of all those who have not lapsed."

Ep. xxvii. Lapsis. p. 89.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 31


After citing several passages, both from the Old and New Testament, and amongst the rest St. Luke 10:16, He that heareth you, heareth me, he continues:

"There being these numerous, weighty, and many other such examples as precedents, whereby God has condescended to confirm the sacerdotal authority and power, what kind of men, thinkest them, are they, who, enemies of the priesthood, and rebels against the Catholic Church, are neither scared by the Lord's forewarning threats, nor by the vengeance of a future judgment? For neither have heresies sprung up, nor schisms been engendered, from other source than this, that obedience is not paid to the priest of God, nor attention given to this, that there is but one priest at a time in a church, and who for the time is judge in Christ's stead, whom, if the brotherhood would, according to the divine commands, obey, no one would stir anything in opposition to the college of priests; no one would, after the divine sanction, after the suffrage of the people, after the consent of the fellow-bishops, make himself a judge, not now merely of a bishop, but of God; no one would, by a breach of unity, tear in pieces Christ's Church; no one, pleasing himself and swelling with pride, would found a new heresy apart and without (the Church): unless there be a man of so sacrilegious rashness and abandoned a mind, as to think that a priest is made without the judgment of God."

Ep. Iv. ad Cornelium, pp. 177, 178.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 34-35

"Nor, indeed, because a few rash and wicked men abandon the heavenly and saving ways of the Lord, and not doing what is holy, are forsaken by the Holy Spirit, ought we, therefore, to be so unmindful of the divine tradition, as to account the crimes of these enthusiasts of greater weight than the judgments of the priests, or fancy that human efforts avail more to attack, than the divine guardianship to protect. Is then the dignity of the Catholic Church, and the faithful and uncorrupted majesty of the people within her, and the priestly authority, too, and power, to be laid down for this, that men who are set without the Church may tell us they wish to judge a prelate of the Church? heretics (pass judgment) on a Christian? The wounded on the sound! the maimed on the uninjured! the fallen on him that stands firm! the guilty on the judge! the sacrilegious on a priest!"

Ep. Iv. ad Cornelium, pp. 184, 185.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 35

"Since Novatian, whom this man (Marcianus, Bishop of Aries) follows, has been long ago excommunicated, and judged an enemy to the Church, who, when he sent his agents to us in Africa, desiring to be admitted into communion with us, carried back hence from a numerous council of priests, who were then assembled, this sentence, that he had begun to be without, nor could any of us be in communion with him, who, when Cornelius had been, by the judgment of God, and the suffrage of the clergy and people, ordained bishop in the Catholic Church, had attempted to erect a profane altar, to set up an adulterous chair, and to offer sacrilegious sacrifices in opposition to the true priest, and that, therefore, if he wished to repent, and to return to a wholesome feeling, he should do penitence, and return as a suppliant to the Church, — how idle is it, that after Novatian has been repulsed, and cast back, and excommunicated, throughout the whole world, by the priests of God, still to suffer his flatterers now to mock us, and to pass judgment on the majesty and dignity of the Church. . . . ."For this cause is the numerous body of priests knit together with the glue of mutual concord, and the bond of unity, that if any of our college should attempt to create a heresy, and to rend and lay waste the flock of Christ, the rest may come in aid, and, like useful and merciful shepherds, gather into (one) flock the Lord's sheep " For although we are many shepherds, yet do we feed but one flock; and we ought to gather together and to cherish all the sheep which, with His blood and passion, Christ sought. . . .The Lord declares those men execrable and abominable who please themselves, who, swollen and inflated, arrogantly assume something to themselves. Of which number since Marcianus has begun to be, and, uniting himself to Novatian, stands forth the enemy of mercy and piety, let him not give, but receive sentence; nor so act as if it were he that had judged the college of priests, whereas he himself has been judged by the whole priesthood. The glory and honor of our predecessors, the blessed martyrs Cornelius and Lucius, ought to be guarded; whose memory whilst we honor, much more ought you, by your weight and authority, to honor and guard it, who have been made the vicar and successor of them."

Ep. Ixvii. ad Stephanum,pp. 248-250.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 35-36

"The spouse of Christ cannot become adulterate; she is undefiled and chaste. She owns but one home; with spotless purity, she guards the sanctity of one chamber. She keeps us for God; she appoints unto the kingdom the sons that she has borne. Whosoever, having separated from the Church, is joined to an adulteress, he is cut off from the promises of the Church. Neither shall he come unto the rewards of Christ who leaves the Church of Christ. He is an alien, he is an outcast, he is an enemy. He can no longer have God for a father, who has not the Church for a mother."

De Unitate, p. 397
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 37

Lactantius, (A.D. 240-c.330), was an early Christian author, the goal of his writings was to present Christianity in a form that would be attractive to philosophical pagans.

"As many heresies have sprung up, and as, by the instigation of demons, the people of God has been divided, truth is by us briefly to be defined, and at the same time to be placed in its own proper dwelling place; that so if any one desire to draw the water of life, he may not be carried to broken cisterns that hold no water, but become acquainted with the most bountiful fountain of God, watered by which he may possess perennial life. It behooves us, then, first of all, to know that both Himself and His ambassadors foretold that many sects and heresies would have existence, and sever the concord of the holy body, and warned us to use the utmost prudence and care, for fear lest we might at any time fall into the snares and wiles of that adversary with whom it is God's will that we should wrestle. . . . Some of ours there have been, either less settled in faith, or less learned, or less prudent, who have caused a breach in unity, and disunited the Church. . . . Whilst some there have been, not learned enough in the heavenly writings, who, unable to reply to their opponents, when they objected that it was both impossible and unbecoming that God should be enclosed within a woman's womb . . . have been perverted from the right path, and have corrupted the heavenly writings, so far as to fashion for themselves a new doctrine without any root or firmness: whilst some, enticed away by the predictions of false prophets, who have been, both by Him and by the true prophets, foretold, have fallen away from God's doctrine, and abandoned the true tradition. But all these, entangled in demoniacal wiles which they ought to have foreseen, and to have guarded against, have, by their imprudence, lost the divine name and worship. For whereas they are called Phrygians or Novatians, or Valentinians, or Marcionites, or Anthropians (Arians), or other such, they ceased to be Christians, who, having lost the name of Christ, assumed human and extraneous titles.

The Catholic Church is therefore the only one that retains the true worship. This is the source of truth; this the dwelling-place of faith; this the temple of God, which whosoever enters not, or from which whosoever departs, he is an alien from the hope of life, and eternal salvation. No one ought to flatter himself by means of obstinate disputation; for life and salvation are at stake, which, if not prudently and sedulously looked to, are lost and utterly destroyed.

But, as every sect of heretics thinks itself above every other Christian, the Catholic Church, it is to be known is the true Church wherein are Confession and penitence, which wholesomely heal the wounds and sins to which the weakness of the flesh is subject.
Thus much, in a few words, have I set down by way of admonition, lest any one desirous of avoiding error become entangled in a greater error, whilst ignorant of the shrine of truth."

Divin. Inst. L. iv. c. 30.
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St. Methodius of Olympus, (A.D. 250-311), Asia Minor; bishop, ecclesiastical writer, martyr.

"The woman that appeared Heaven clothed with the sun, having a crown of twelve stars, at whose feet the moon has her resting place, and who is travailing and in pain to be delivered, she in sooth, in strictness of speech, is our mother, O virgins; a power she of herself, distinct from her children; she whom the prophets have called, according to the scope of what they set before us, at one time, Jerusalem; at another, the spouse; now the mountain of Sion; and again the temple and tabernacle of God. For that power which, as in the prophet, eagerly sought to be illuminated, the Spirit crying to her, "Be enlightened, O Jerusalem, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord shall be seen upon thee," (Isaiah. 55:1-4) is the Church, whose children, after the resurrection, hastening unto her in crowds, from every quarter will press to her: and having received a light that knows no setting, is clothed as with a garment, and gladdened with the brightness of the Word. . . . . . Behold the mighty woman, a pure and spotless and abiding beauty, scattering around her a brightness no wise inferior to that of the rays of light."

Conviv. Virg. Orat. viii. n. 5, p. 717. Galland. T. iii. Bibl. Vet. PP.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 40

St. Alexander of Alexandria, (c.A.D. 250-325), He succeeded to the chair of Alexandria about the year A.D. 312. He was the first to resist the heresy of Arius, whom he condemned, and whose against novelties he wrote numerous letters to the bishops of various churches; only two of these remain.

"These Arians will not condescend to compare any of the ancients with themselves; nor endure that the masters, whom we have used from our childhood, be equaled with them; nay, they do not think that any one of our fellow-ministers throughout the whole world has attained to any measure of wisdom. They alone are the wise, though poor in everything; and declare themselves the discoverers of truths, and that to them alone have been revealed things which have never entered even into the thoughts of anyone else under the sun. Oh, the unhallowed pride and boundless madness, and vain-glory befitting their atrabilious spirit, and the Satanic arrogance, that have hardened into their very souls! Neither the explanation, well-pleasing unto God, of the ancient Scripture, has shamed them, nor the concordant pious doctrine of their fellow-ministers concerning Christ has repressed their audacity against Him, whose unhallowed work not even will the devils endure. ... Of them (Father and Son) we believe as it seems right to the Apostolic Church. . . . (We acknowledge) one and one only Catholic and apostolic Church, ever indeed incapable of being overthrown, even though the whole world should choose to war against it, and which will conquer every most unhallowed opposition of the heterodox, the Master of the household Himself having made us confident, in that He cried out, "Have confidence, I have overcome the world." (John 16:33).

[Having explained the Apostles Creed, he adds]

These things we teach, these we proclaim, these are the apostolic doctrines of the Church, for which too we would die."

Ep. de Arian. Hæres. Labbe, t. ii. pp. 19-21, and Galland, t. iv. pp. 447, 448.
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Hosius of Cordova, (A.D. 256-358), Spanish; Bishop of Cordova, in Spain, foremost Western champion of orthodoxy in the early anti-Arian struggle, suffered for the faith, and was present at the Council of Nicaea.

"When did Constantine your father do anything like this? What bishop did he banish? When did he obtrude himself into the judgments of the Church? . . . Cease, I beseech thee, and remember that thou art a mortal man. Fear the day of judgment; keep thyself clean against that day. Put not thyself forward into ecclesiastical matters, nor be thou the man to charge us in these matters; rather learn them thyself from us. In thy hands God has placed the kingly power; to us He has entrusted the things of the Church; and as he who deprives thee of thy rule, opposes God who has thus ordained, so fear thou lest, drawing to thyself the things of the Church, thou fall under a grievous accusation. "Render", it is written, "unto Caesar, the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's." It is therefore neither lawful for us to rule over the earth, nor hast thou power to offer incense."

Ep. ad Const, op. Athan. in Hist. Arian. n. 44, t. i. p. 293,
ed. Bened. Patav. 1777, Galland. t.v. pp. 81, 82.
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Eusebius of Cæsarea, (A.D. c.263-338), appointed Bishop of Cæsarea in A.D. 314, Roman historian, exegete and Christian polemicist, scholar of the Biblical canon who was deeply embroiled in the Arian controversy.

"I will at the same time add to the manifestation of these things, the theology of our Savior; having nothing indeed to say that is freshly discovered, nor any wise thing of my own, and that is my own discovery, but shall put forward the uncorrupted doctrine of the Church of God, which she, having received it from above, from the beginning, from ear and eye witnesses of the Word, still guards."

In Eccles. Theol. p. 60, ed. Colon. 1688.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 46

"The Church of God, journeying straight in the right and royal road, has condemned all the rest as by-paths, and she transmits to her votaries the knowledge of the divine grace, teaching, in the very mystery of regeneration, to confess and believe one God the Father Almighty,"

De Ecdes. Theol. 1. i. c. 8, p. 65.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 46

"Into Edom will I stretch out my shoe" (Psalms 107:10). . . . "Again, you will not err if you say that the Apostles are the "shoe", or they who minister the Gospel even unto this day. . . . . .He orders His disciples to evangelize all the nations in His name. Thus, then, even unto this present time, the God of the universe prophesies, that He will dwell in His holy place, and will in it, and through it, speak to men. . . . . "Who will bring me into the fortified city? who will lead me into Edom? And it is very wonderful that God is spoken of as not walking with naked feet, but with "shoes," the word indicating the souls that minister to His will, by means of whom, having completed the vocation of the Gentiles, He established over the whole earth His city, I mean His Catholic Church, and the assembly of God-serving men; of which city it is elsewhere said, "Glorious things are said of thee, city of God." (Psalms 86:3) And, The stream of the river maketh the city of God joyful. (Psalms 45:5) This fortified city, therefore, when the prophet desired to behold, he said, "Who will bring me into the fortified city? or, into the city fenced round", for so Symmachus interprets: for the gates and doors and bolts of the divine powers fence it round, that it may not suffer any devastation. Therefore did the Savior say concerning it, "I will build my Church upon a rock, and the gates of Hell shall not prevail against it."

In Ps. lix. t. l, pp. 282-284. — Nov. Collect. (Montfaucon) Patr. Graec. Paris. 1707.
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"He alone, having been born in that city, settled and confirmed The city of God, that is, a system according to God, and a God-fearing institution, throughout the whole universe, by means of His Catholic Church, which is settled in every place and country and city, to which we ought to be persuaded that the saying applies, "Glorious things are said of thee, O city of God"; and, "The stream of the river maketh the city of God joyful", and whatever else of this nature is set down in the divine Scriptures."

Comm. in Ps. lxxxvi. t. i. p. 539 (Montfaucon), Nov. Collect. PP. Gr.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 47

The Apostolic Constitutions (or Constitutions of the Holy Apostles), dated A.D.c 270, is a Christian collection of eight treatises which belongs to genre of the Church Orders.

"Endeavor, O bishop, to be pure in thy actions, understanding thy place and dignity: which is that of one sustaining the image of God among men, being set over all men, over priests, kings, rulers, fathers, children, masters, and in general over all those who are subject to thee."

Const. Apostol. l. ii. c. xi.; Galland. t. iii. Bib. Vet. PP. Yenet. 1765.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 39

"Let then the layman honor the good shepherd, love him and fear him as his lord, as his master, as the high-priest of God, as the teacher of piety. For he who hears him, hears Christ, and he who despises him, despises Christ, and he who receives not Christ, receives not his God and Father. For He has said, "He that heareth you, heareth me, and he that despiseth you, despiseth me, and he that despiseth me despiseth Him that sent me."

Const. Apostol. 1. ii. c. xx.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 39

"The bishop; he is the minister of the word, the keeper of knowledge, the mediator between God and you in those things which pertain to His worship; he is the teacher of piety; he is, after God, your father, who has regenerated you by water and the Spirit unto the adoption of sons. He is your ruler, and he is your king and potentate; he is, next after God, your earthly God, who has a right to receive honor from you; for of him, and of such as he, God has said, "I have said ye are gods, and all of you sons of the Most High." (Psalms 81:6); "and you shall not speak evil of the gods." (Exodus 22:28) For let the bishop preside over you, as one honored with the dignity of God, with which he rules the clergy, and governs all the people."

Const. Apostol. l. ii. c. 26. See also l. ii. c. 29, 30.
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Lucifer of Cagliagi, (unknown-371), Italian; bishop of Cagliari, distinguished himself as a strenuous opponent of the Arians. He died about the year 371. His works, which consist almost solely of a few pieces addressed to the Emperor Constantius, are given by Gallandius in his sixth volume and from the Tillius edition. He is venerated as a Saint in Sardinia.

"Thou persecutes the house of God, Constantius, and knowest not that in persecuting her, thou art persecuting God Himself: for the Church is God's habitation, in which the Lord dwells, as in the Psalm is written, "The Lord hath chosen Sion, He hath chosen it for His dwelling. This is my rest for ever and ever; here will I dwell for I have chosen it." (Psalm cxxxi.)

Pro St. Athanas. L. i. n. 43, t. vi. Galland, p. 173.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 53

"The Holy Spirit, the Comforter, who was in the prophets, remained also in the Apostles, which same Holy Spirit, the Comforter, since he is in God's Church, and you have been placed without the Church, He abides not in you, who are thereby proved to have the spirit of antichrist, which unclean spirit, for fear lest you should see what we now urge upon you, spreads the blinding darkness of error over your heretical hearts."

De non parcend. in Deum delinq, n. 37, Galland. t. vi. p. 238.
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St. Athanasius of Alexandria, (A.D. 296-372), Egyptian; bishop, theologian, and Doctor of the Church. He was present, as an assistant to St. Alexander of Alexandria, at the council of Nicea who he succeeded in A.D. 326. During more than forty years he was the champion of orthodoxy, and suffered much severe persecution from the Arian party.

"But let us nevertheless, in addition to the above, see the tradition which is from the beginning, and the doctrine and faith of the Catholic Church, which the Lord indeed communicated, but the Apostles proclaimed and the fathers guarded; for on this has the Church been founded, and he who falls away from this, would not be, nor would he even be called, Christian."

Ep. i. ad Serapion. n. 28, t. 1, p. 540, ed. Ben. Patav. 1777.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 48-49

"They (the fathers at Nicea) wrote indeed respecting Easter, "It has seemed good, as follows," for it did then seem good that there should be a general compliance; but as regards the faith, they wrote not, "It has seemed good", but, "Thus believes the Catholic Church," and at once confessed how they believed, thereby to show that their sentiment was not novel, but apostolical, and that what they wrote down was not a discovery of their own, but the same as the Apostles had taught."

De Synodis, n. 5, t. i. p. 575.
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"It is enough to give this only for answer to these things (asserted by the Arians), and to say, "These things are not of the Catholic Church, neither did the fathers think thus."

Ep. ad Epictet. n. 3, p. 722, t. 1.
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Pope St. Damasus I, (A.D. 304-384), Roman; Pope and personal friend of St. Jerome; he succeeded Liberius in the chair of Rome; he defended with vigor the Catholic faith.

Pope St. Damasus receives reports from his clerical colleagues about clerical problems in Gaul.

"We have indeed confidence, that your holiness, grounded on the instruction given by the Apostles, holds fast, and teaches to the people, that faith which in nothing differs from the institutes of our forefathers. For it does not beseem priests of God, whose part it is to instruct others, to hold any other sentiment, yet have we learned from the relation of some of our brethren from Gaul, that there are some who, not from any heretical intention for so great an evil cannot befall God's appointed rulers but from ignorance, or a kind of simplicity, agitated by sinister interpretations, do not discern which is the sentiment of our fore fathers that is in preference to be held, when divers opinions are urged upon their attention. . . . When, in time past, the poison of the heretics began to spread itself, as it does now once more, and when especially the blasphemy of the Arians first shot up, our forefathers, the three hundred and eighteen bishops, and they who were sent from the city of the most holy Bishop of Rome (St. Silvester), assembled in council at Nicea, and raised up this wall against the weapons of the devil, and by this antidote repelled the cup of death. . . . Your uprightness perceives that the faith alone which was settled at Nicea, by the authority of the Apostles, is to be held with unswerving firmness."

Ep. i. Synod. Orientalibus, Galland. t. vi. p. 321.
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St. Ephrem the Syrian, (of Edessa), (A.D. 306-378), Syrian; born in Nisebis, deacon, hymnist, poet. His works were even during his own lifetime almost all translated into Greek, and were, as St. Jerome informs us, held in such high estimation, as to be read in some churches after the Holy Scriptures. We have his life by St. Gregory of Nyssa.

"They again must be reproved, whosoever they are, that go astray out of the highway, and wander along devious and treacherous paths: seeing that the way of salvation presents to us marks, whereby we may perfectly know that this is the road which the messengers of peace trod; which the wise, inspired by the Spirit, foreshowed; and which the prophets and Apostles have left us levelled and made smooth: whose milestones truth has set up, and whose hostelries Christ has fitted up. Come, brethren, let us enter upon this road, by which the Father sent the Son; let us keep to the King's highway, that we may all together journey even to the beholding of the King's Son.

T. ii. Syr. Serm. xxv. Adv. Hæres. p. 495 and 498.
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"Marcion knew well the authority of the sons of truth, and the signs openly shown by them (miracles), which report has transmitted even to our knowledge; and this too is attested by their own Scriptures, so that should he in any place controvert them, he may be convicted by his own words. If then the apostates from the old religion presume to sow new opinions, and ask to be believed, in return miracles are to be asked at their hands: let this therefore abundantly suffice to confute them, that, whereas diseases are everywhere prevalent, they have never as yet cured one sick person, nor even dispelled the slightest attack of fever."

T. ii. Syr. Serm. 40, Adv. Hæres, p. 530.
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"Hither come, O Faith, thou gift bestowed from Heaven on holy Church; in her bosom, I pray thee, fix thine abode, and there rest. If the Jews have driven thee from them, what wonder? they follow fables and their own dreaming; that the heterodox have in this conspired with them, is nothing new, for they are in love with contentions and disputes. See that thou show thyself grateful to Him, who has founded, and united to thee a nation that becomes thee, which bears thee aloft upon its shoulders, in triumph, through the world."

T. iii. Syr. Serm. vi. de Fide (adv. Scrutat.) p. 161.
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"Let it not be to you, oh ye disciples of faith, a matter of surprise that the Jewish teachers are even yet in search after the truth: in the same way as it was found by the magi in the city of Bethlehem, will it be met without labor in the bosom of holy Church, by those who seek for it with a pure intention."

T. iii. Syr. Serm. iii. adv. Scrut.p. 201.
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St. Pacian of Barcelona, (A.D. c.310-375), bishop of Barcelona, Jerome praises his eloquence, learning, chastity, and holiness of life. He is also remembered from a phrase from one of his letters: "My name is Christian, my surname is Catholic.".

"Come, you say, and let us contend with facts and argument." I, for my part, have been free from all anxiety; have been content with the continued existence itself of the Church, and with the peacefulness of the ancient congregation. The arts of discord are unknown to me; I have been no searcher after arguments for disputation. You, after being separated from the rest of the body, and divided from your mother, that you may give a reason for what you have done, have become an assiduous searcher and inquirer into all the hidden recesses of books: what is hidden you explore; what is at rest you disturb. Our fathers, unrequired, entered into no dispute; our very security sought no arms. . . . You state, and rightly indeed, that the Church is a people renewed of water and the Holy Ghost; free from denying the name of Christ; is the temple and the house of God, the pillar and ground of truth; a holy virgin with chastest feelings, the spouse of Christ, of His flesh and of His bones, not having spot or wrinkle; and preserving entire the laws of the Gospels. Who amongst us denies this? None, but let state further, that the Church is the queen "in gilded clothing, surrounded with variety (Psalms 44); the fruitful vine on the sides of the house of the Lord (Psalms 127); the mother of young maidens without number; the one fair and perfect dove of her mother (Canticles, 6); the very mother of all, built upon the foundation of the Apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner-stone; a great house enriched with every variety of vessels." But this of ours hereafter: and meanwhile let us consider your words. "The Church is a people born again of water and of the Holy Ghost." Well! who has closed up the fountain of God? Who has carried away the Spirit (from me)? Yea, rather, with us is "the living water", which springs from Christ: while you, separated from the everlasting fountain, where did you receive your birth? The Holy Spirit, in like manner, has not departed from the chief mother: whence then came He to thee? Unless it be that He has forsooth followed a dissenter, and having abandoned so many priests, content with an unconsecrated throne (chair), He has preferred the broken cistern of an adulterated fountain. . . . The Church is a people free from denying the name of Christ. Are there then no confessors amongst us, proved by chains and fire and sword? There were, you say, but they perished by receiving sinners. . . .But whom can you persuade that the whole Church, by receiving the lapsed, hath fallen away? That, by the admission of penitents, the people of those who admit them has been made a denier (of the faith)? Nay, supposing that a part of the people was too yielding, did the rest also who approved not of what was done, but followed custom and peace, forfeit the Christian name? Hear the voice of Jeremias: "In those days they shall say no more, The fathers have eaten a sour grape, and the teeth of the children are set on edge. But every one shall die for his own iniquity," (Jeremias 31:29, 30.). . . You bind the whole world with the chains of a few; you condemn the whole Church for the weakness of a small portion. Say, are all, in your eyes, saints, whom Novatus instructed, whom Evaristus chose, whom Nicostratus taught, whom Novatian trained? Hast thou escaped the thorns and briars? In thy "corn" are there no "tares?" Is thy "wheat" already purged? Is the purifier to come to thee without his fan? Wilt thou alone be found without "chaff?" But come, proceed with the rest. "The Church is the body of Christ." The body, mind, not a member; the body framed into one out of many parts and members, according to that of the Apostle, For the body is not one member, but many. Wherefore the Church is the full body; both a body, and a compact body, and a body now spread over the whole world: like a city, I mean, whose parts form one whole; not as you Novatians, an unnatural kind of accumulated excrescence and part, separated from the rest of the body. The Church is the temple of God. Truly, a roomy temple; a great house, having vessels of gold and of silver, and also of wood and of earth, some unto honor, and many magnificent set apart for the manifold uses of various works. The Church is a holy virgin, of chastest feelings, the spouse of Christ. A virgin, no doubt, but a mother too; a spouse, undeniably, but also a wife, taken out of her husband, and therefore bone of his bones, and flesh of his flesh. For of her David said, "Thy wife as a fruitful vine, on the sides of thy house. Thy children, as olive plants, round about thy table." This virgin has given birth to many; her offspring is countless; with it the whole world is filled; with it the thronging swarms hum busily within the ever-teeming hives. Great is the mother's care for her children, and tender her affection: the good honored, the haughty punished, the sick healed; not one perishes, not one is despised; the confiding children are governed by the parent's kindness."

"The Church has neither spot nor wrinkle; that is, with out heresies, without Valentinians, without Cataphrygians, without Novatians. In these are certain spotted and wrinkled folds, as if in envy of the ornaments of the precious garments. For the rest, the sinner and the penitent are not a spot on the Church; because, as long as he sins and repents not, he is placed without the Church; when he ceases to sin he is already whole. But the garment of the Lord, that is, the Church of Christ, is by the heretic rent, cut, injured, and crumpled. For whereas, says the Apostle, "there are schisms and contentions among you, are you not carnal, and walk according to man?" (1 Corinthians 3) And "their speech spreadeth like a canker" (2 Timothy 2) This is the "spot" on unity; this the "wrinkle".

Finally, when the Apostle is speaking of these things, he sets before us Christ's love and affection; as Christ loved the Church and delivered Himself up for it, thereby to set aside heretics who know not how to love. But why apply this to the unhappy penitent? Because he wisheth both to love and be loved."

Epist. i. n. 2-6, pp. 262, 263, Galland. t. vii.
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Didymus the Blind, surnamed of Alexandria, (A.D. 313-398), Alexandrian; though born blind, he amassed a vast knowledge of grammar, rhetoric, logic, music, arithmetic, and geometry, and a perfect familiarity with Holy Scripture. Of his numerous writings but few remain.

"The Spirit, the comforter and the holy, and the spirit too of truth is given by the Father, to abide ever with Christ's disciples, with whom is also the Savior Himself, who says, "Lo, I am with you even to the consummation of the world".

De Spir. Sanc. n. 28, Galland. t. vi. p. 274.
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Explaining 1 St. John, 2:18,19:

18 Little children, it is the last hour; and as you have heard that Antichrist cometh, even now there are become many Antichrists: whereby we know that it is the last hour. 19 They went out from us, but they were not of us. For if they had been of us, they would no doubt have remained with us; but that they may be manifest, that they are not all of us.

This is not written concerning all who hold false doctrine, but regards those only who, after being instructed in the gospel, turn aside to a false sect. . . . For it is a natural consequence that they who have separated themselves from the assembly of the faithful are antichrists. For how can they help but be antichrists, they who hold opinions opposite to those which the Church of Christ confesses?"

De Spir. Sanc. Enarrat. in Epist. i. S. Joannis p. 297.
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Council of Arles, (held in A.D. 314), one of a series of seven Catholic synods held at Arles, it condemned the heresy of Donatism. This is the first instance of an appeal of a Christian party to the secular power, and it turned out unfavorably to the Donatists who afterwards became enemies of the Roman authorities. The Council of Arles was the first called by Constantine.

In the synodal epistle of this council, which was held in A.D. 314, we have the following:

"Bound and adhering together to the Catholic Church by a common bond of love, and by the union of that Church our mother, we have, by the will of the most pious emperor, been gathered together in the city of Aries, whence we, with well-merited reverence, salute you, most illustrious pope (Silvester). Thither we have brought (or, there we have had to endure) men troublesome and pernicious to our law and tradition, and of an unbridled mind; whom both the present authority of our God, and the tradition and rule of truth, have in such wise repudiated, as that there remained not any thing to be said by them, nor any ground of accusation, nor any suitable proof. Wherefore God, and our mother the Church being the judge — she who both knows and approves her own — they were either condemned or repulsed. And would, most beloved brother, that you would have done us so much honor, as to be present at this so great a spectacle; we assuredly believe that a more severe sentence would have been pronounced against them; and, you judging together with us, our assembly would have exulted with greater joy."

Ep. Synod. Silvestro et al. col. 1425, t. ii. Ldbbe.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 67-68

St. Hilary of Poitiers, (A.D. 315-367), French; husband, theologian, bishop of Poiters around A.D. 355, and Doctor of the Church. Referred to as the "Hammer of the Arians" and the "Athanasius of the West.". He was obviously a firm supporter of St. Athanasius.

Explaining St. Matthew 13:1, he says:

"The reason why the Lord sat in the ship, and the crowds stood without, is derived from the things that lie under these circumstances. For He was about to speak in parables; and by this kind of action He signifies, that they who are placed without the Church, cannot attain to any understanding of the divine words. For the ship exhibits a type of the Church, the word of life placed and preached within which, they who are without, and lie near like barren and useless sands, cannot understand."

Comm. in Matthew c. xiii. n. 1, t. I, p. 374.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 47

St. Cyril of Jerusalem, (A.D. 315-386), Palestinian; ordained by Maximus, he was made bishop of Jerusalem in A.D. 345; scholar and Doctor of the Church. None of his writings have been preserved to us, except eighteen catechetical instructions addressed to catechumens, and five mystagogic discourses addressed to neophytes.

The thirty-third section of the fourth Catechetical Instruction is headed, "Of the Holy Scriptures." Having made a remark against a heresy of long standing, he says,

"Learn also diligently, and from the Church, which are the books of the Old Testament, and which of the New, and read not to me anything of the uncertain books. For why shouldest thou, that knowest not those which are acknowledged by all, take useless trouble about those which are questioned? Read the divine Scriptures, those twenty-two books of the Old Testament which were interpreted by the seventy-two interpreters."

[Then follows a well-known account of that translation, which seems to assert a species of divine inspiration in its favor.]

"Read the twenty-two books of these men (or of these Scriptures), but have nothing to do with the uncertain books (non-canonical books). Those only meditate on earnestly, which we read confidently even in the church. Far wiser than thou, and more devout, were the Apostles and the ancient bishops, the rulers (presidents) of the Church, who have handed these down. Thou, therefore, who art a child of the Church, do not falsify what has been settled."

Catech. iv. n. 33,35, pp. 67, 68, ed. Bened. Venet. 1763.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 50-51

"But take thou and hold, as a learner, and in profession, that faith only which is now delivered to thee by the Church, and is fenced round out of all Scripture. For since all can not read the Scriptures, but some as being unlearned, others by business, are hindered from knowledge (of them), in order that the soul may not perish from want of instruction, we comprehend the whole doctrine of the faith in a few sentences. This I wish you to remember in the very phrase, and to rehearse it with all diligence amongst yourselves, not writing it on paper, but graving it by memory on your heart; being on your guard in your exercise, lest haply a catechumen should overhear the things delivered to you. This I wish you to have as a provision by the way during the whole period of life, and besides this never to receive any other."

Catech. v. n. 12
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 51

St. Gregory of Nazianzen, (A.D. 318-389), Cappadocian; archbishop, theologian, Doctor of the Church.

"Order has settled, even in the churches, that some be sheep and others shepherds; some the ruled and others the rulers; that this be as it were the head, this the foot, this the hand, this the eye, and this as some other member of the human body, for the perfect harmony and benefit of the whole, as well of the highest as of the lowest. And as, in our bodies, the members are not severed from each other, but the whole is one body composed of different members ... so is it with us who are the common body of Christ. For all we are one body in Christ, being individually members of Christ and of each other; for one in deed rules and is seated in honor, another is guided and governed, and the employment of both is not the same unless to rule and to be ruled be the same thing yet do they both become one unto one Christ, being built up and joined together by the same Spirit. . . . Let us revere this order, brethren; this let us guard. Let one be the ear, another the tongue, a third the hand, another some other member. Let one teach, another learn, another do good (working) with his own hands, that he may have wherewith to bestow on him that asks, and on the needy. Let not all of us be the tongue, nor all prophets, nor all apostles, nor all expounders. Is it an excellent thing to speak of God? More excellent is it to purify one's self unto God. To teach is excellent, but to learn is free from danger. Why doest thou make thyself a shepherd, though one of the flock? Being the foot, why wilt thou become the head? Why take upon thee to play the general, though enrolled amongst the common soldiers? Why pursue the great, but uncertain gains of the ocean, when, though thou mayest gain less, it is in thy power to till the earth?"

T. i. Or. xxvi. pp. 449, 450.
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"If these men (the Apollinarists), equally with those who hold rightly, are permitted to teach as they choose, and to promulgate in public their adopted dogmas, is it not manifest that the doctrine of the Church is thereby condemned, as if the truth were with those men? For it is not in nature that two contrary assertions, on the same subject, can both be true."

T. i. Or. 46, p. 722.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 56

St. Basil the Great, (A.D. 328-379), Cappadocian; bishop of Cæsarea in A.D. 369, theologian, monk. Studied in Palestine, Constantinople, and Athens. Many of the subsequent years of his life were spent in the deserts of Egypt and Libya. His character and works have gained for him the surname of "the great".

Is not the government of the Church clearly and indisputably the work of the Spirit; for He gave, He says, "first Apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers,"

Lib. de Sp. Sanct. c. xvi. t. iii. Pars i.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 57

"As for us, besides this open war of heretics, that, in addition, which has been raised by those who have the appearance of being orthodox, has reduced the churches to the last degree of weakness. For which reason we stand in special need of assistance from you (the bishops of the west), to the end that they who profess the apostolic faith, having done away with the schisms which they have invented, may henceforward be subjected to the authority of the Church; that the body of Christ may become perfect, restored to completeness in all its members; and that we may not only praise the good things found amongst others as we now do, but see our own churches also recover their pristine glory of orthodoxy. For what has been vouchsafed to your godliness by the Lord, is truly worthy of the most exalted praise; that you discriminate, that is, the adulterate from the approved and the pure, and openly teach, without subterfuge whatever, the faith of the fathers, which we also have received, and have recognized as marked with the apostolic characteristics."

T. iii. P. i. Ep. xcii. ad Ital. et Gall. p. 266
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St. Epiphanius of Salamis, (A.D. 332-403), Palestinian; bishop, abbot, scholar.

"Oh, the exceeding foolishness of man! — every pretext, be it however slight, has drawn aside from the truth every heresy, and led it into a multitude of evils. For like a man, who, having found a gap in the fence to the highway, makes up his mind to walk through it, and leaving the public road, he turns from it, thinking he has a shorter road, from which, after thus deviating, he shall again come upon the highway, but knows not that there is a very high wall which is built up for a long distance, and he then runs about unable to find an outlet, and passing on for a mile or two, there still remains a further distance, and yet he finds no road, and so, turn where he will, he has before him a greater length of journey; while toiling on thus, finding no path which may lead him to the right road, and perhaps unable even to find one without retracing his steps on that upon which he lately entered; so every heresy, though it has it in its power to find a short road, yet does it wander to and fro over one that is longer, and meets at once with an impregnable wall, the tortuous windings, to wit, of ignorance and of folly, and such cannot find a way to come upon the right road, except by returning to the main road, the king's highway that is. Even as the law of blessed Moses plainly proclaimed, saying to the king of Edom, "Thus saith thy brother Israel, Through thy boundaries will we pass unto the land which the Lord swore to give unto our fathers, a land flowing with milk and honey. . . . We will not turn aside to the right hand or to the left; we will drink water for silver , and eat our food for silver; we will not turn aside either here or there; we will go on the king's highway." (Numbers 20) For there is a king's highway, and that is the Church of God, and the path way of truth. But each of the heresies having left the king's highway, and turning aside to the right hand or to the left, then giving itself up unreservedly, is dragged forward into error, and the shamelessness of error knows no limits in every heresy. Come, then, ye servants of God, and children of the holy Church of God, ye who are acquainted with the safe rule, and are walking in the way of truth, and who are not dragged from side to side by words, and the summons of each false sect, for slippery are their ways. . . . They boast of great things, and know not the least: they proclaim liberty, though themselves the slaves of error."

T. i. Adv. Hæres. (59), pp. 503, 504.
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"Even as we are the body of Christ, and members of member, and the Church of God, which is the body of Christ. If, then, the body of God, the Church, closely united (glued) to the Spirit, that is, to the Lord, is one spirit, he therefore that strays away from her, having fallen away from the Spirit, becomes carnal, both in soul and body."

T. i. Adv. Hæres. (66), p. 707.
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"The gates of Hell are in truth all the heresies, but they shall not prevail against the rock, against the truth that is. And although some of them should choose to say, "We also confess that faith that was laid down at Nicea: show me from it that the Holy Ghost is reckoned in the Godhead:" they will be found even from it refuted. There was at that time, however, no question concerning the Spirit. For synods create security on the point that falls under notice from time to time."

Adv. litres. Ct),pp. 903, 904.
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"Had no controversy been at first mooted on this subject, it was a very simple matter. For in what has this novelty benefited the world, or profited the Church? Rather has it not caused injury, having given birth to hatred and party-spirit? But as the doctrine sprang up it became formidable: for it was not to the better aiding us to our salvation: it is a denial of the faith, not merely not to confess on this head, but even in the smallest matter. For we ought not, even in the slightest particular, to deviate from the way of truth. Let us then argue against this position of theirs; desirous not to abandon our life, nor to desert the rule of the holy Church of God, and of the confession of faith. For never has this (opinion of theirs) been asserted by any of the ancients, whether prophet, or apostle, or evangelist, or by any of the expositors, even unto these days, never until this sophistical declaration came from this man of much learning."

Adv. Hæres. (77), p, 1018.
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"We have on the present occasion made these remarks in a cursory manner only, with the view that God-fearing men may know that whosoever chooses to transgress the boundaries of the holy Church of God, and to go beyond the hope of the tradition, both prophetic and apostolic, and of faith and doctrine, — he whose mind, on account of the brief and slight declaration of one statement, is turned aside to something trivial and ordinary, his understanding will thence forward be perverted to many empty assertions and treacherous conjectures, and unto absurd and strange questions and endless genealogies."

Adv. Hæres. (77), p. 1031.
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"We therefore acknowledge one Church . , . one baptism, one faith. And let these men cease to be against that holy virgin of Christ, and chaste spouse, to wit, the holy Church our mother; for her children have received from the holy fathers, that is, the holy Apostles, to guard the faith, and withal to transmit and preach it to their own children. Amongst whom, most honored brethren, ye also are those children, and transmit this same doctrine to your children. Teaching by word these things, and things like to them; cease not, faithful and orthodox men, to confirm from the divine writings yourselves and your hearers, instructing, guiding, catechizing; (cease not) to guard that holy faith of the Catholic Church, as the alone and holy virgin of God received it from the holy Apostles of the Lord. And not only ought you thus to announce to your children in the Lord to each one of the catechumens about to approach to the holy laver to believe; but you ought also to teach them to say, word by word, as that same mother of us all (teaches to say), "We believe in one God. ... [followed by the rest of the Creed.]" This is that faith transmitted by the Apostles, and in the Church, in that holy city, by all the holy bishops together, in number more than three hundred and ten."

T. ii. Ancor. n. 119, 120, pp. 122, 123.
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"From the midst of these sects, and after them in order of time, there shone forth the saving Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ — His appearance, that is, in the flesh and at the same time the doctrine of the Gospel, and the preaching of the kingdom; which is the alone source of salvation, and the true faith of the Catholic and Apostolic Church; from which all the following, which have but the name of Christ, not the faith, have been cut off and separated.

[He then gives a summary of the heresies listed in his great work, and adds that to the account given of those heresies, he had appended a defensive statement]

In brief, of the orthodox faith and of truth — which is the holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. This is the summary and index of the whole treatise against the eighty heresies, and of the one defensive statement relative to the truth, to wit, the one Catholic Church."

T. ii. Anaceph.pp. 127, 130.
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St. Gregory of Nyssa, (A.D. c.335 - c.394), bishop of Nyssa in A.D. 371, an erudite theologian who made significant contributions to the doctrine of the Trinity and the Nicene creed. Gregory's philosophical writings were influenced by Origen. He was the brother of the great St. Basil.

"This seems to me to teach us, that if, during the time of our education, we share in the instructions of those that are without (the pale of the Church), we are not to withdraw ourselves from the milk with which the Church feeds us, that is, both the laws and customs of the Church, wherewith the soul is fed and nurtured to manhood, and from which the soul takes occasion of mounting to what is lofty."

T. i. De Vita Mosis, p. 189, Paris. 1638.
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"Whoso looketh unto the Church, looketh at once unto Christ, who, through the increase of those who are saved, builds up and increases Himself."

T. i. in Cant. Cantic. Hom. xiii. p. 664.
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"The whole dispute and controversy about dogma, between churchmen and Eunomians [a group of extreme Arians], is, whether we ought to account, as our adversaries assert, the Son and the Spirit, creatures, or, as the Church has believed, of a nature uncreated."

T. ii. l. 1, Contr. Eunom. p. 350 and 386.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 55

St. Ambrose of Milan, (A.D. 340-396), German; reluctantly made bishop in the A.D. 374., Doctor of the Church. He closed a great and glorious career in A.D. 396. We have his life by Paulinus.

"The synagogue loved, the Church loves, and never varies in her affection for Christ. "Where feedest Thou?" she says, "Where do you abide in the mid-day?" (Canticle 1:6) I desire to follow Thee as a nurse, who before held Thee as if linked to Thee, and to seek Thy flocks, because I have lost mine. Thou feedest in the mid-day, that is, there where the Church is, where justice shines, and judgment glows as the mid-day sun; where no shadow is seen; where the days are longer, because the sun of justice lingers longer with them, as though in the summer months."

Hexcaem. L. iv. c. 6, n. 22, t. i. p. 71.
See also Hexcaem. L. vi. c. 8, n. 49, p. 132, E.F.
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"Zabulon, it is said, shall dwell near the sea, (Genesis 49:13), that, himself exempt from danger, he may see the shipwrecks of others, and behold others tossed about in the sea of this world, and carried about by every wind of doctrine, whilst he perseveres immovable in (or, by) the root of faith, as is the thrice-hallowed Church rooted and founded in faith, looking on the storm-tossed heretics, and the shipwrecked Jews, because they have repudiated their former pilot. By the waves therefore is her dwelling-place, but by the waves she is not shaken, prepared rather to afford help, than herself obnoxious to danger: so that if there be any who, driven by the fierce tempests, wish to flee to harbor, the Church, as a harbor of safety, may be at hand, and with outstretched arms, invite the imperiled unto her bosom of rest, showing them a place that is a safe haven. The churches, therefore, are in this world placed for the endangered, like maritime harbors scattered along the coast; proclaiming that a place of refuge has been prepared for believers, whither they may withdraw their storm-tossed vessels."

T. i. De Bened. Patr. c. 5, n. 27, p. 521.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 69

"How should the traveler walk in the dark? His foot soon stumbles in the night, unless the moon, as it were the eye of the world, show the way. Thou also art in the night of the world; let the Church point out the way to thee; let the sun of justice enlighten thee from on high, in order that thou mayest not fear a fall."

T. i. Enarr. in Ps. xxxv. n. 27, p 776.
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"Thou hast wounded my heart with one of thy eyes" (Canticle 4:9) "Most persons understand by this passage the two eyes of the Church; one that sees things mystical, the other things moral; because the holy Church not only holds the knowledge (discipline) of things moral, but also teaches the secrets of the heavenly mystery."

T. i. Enarr. in Ps. cxviii. (Ain) n. 20, p. 1176.
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"Wherefore all other generations are strangers to truth; all the generations of heretics hold not truth: the Church alone, with pious affection, is in possession of the truth."

T. i. in Ps. cxviii. (Lamed) n. 19 p. 1119 and (Tau) n. 33, p. 1255.
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"If by the finger of God devils are cast out, faith likewise by the finger of the Church is discovered."

T. i. Comm. in Luc. L. v. p. 1378
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"To Moses the Lord said, "The place whereon thou standest is holy ground" (Exodus 3), and, "Stand thou here with me" (Deuteronomy 5), that is, thou standest with me, if thou standest in the Church. For that is the holy place; that is the land fruitful in holiness, and rich in harvests of virtues. Stand, therefore, in the Church; stand where I have appeared to thee; there I am with thee. Where the Church is, there is the most secure resting-place (or harbor) for thy mind."

3 T. ii. Ep. lxiii. Eccles. Vercell. n. 41, 42, p. 1032.
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"When didst thou hear, O emperor, of bishops being judged, in a cause regarding faith, by laymen? Are we then so bowed down by a kind of flattery as to be heedless of the sacerdotal right, and shall I fancy that what God bestowed on me, that I may entrust to others? If a bishop is to be taught by a layman, what will follow? Let then the layman argue and the bishop hearken; let the bishop learn from the layman. But, assuredly, whether we look into the series of divine Scriptures, or into the ancient times, who is there that will deny that in a cause regarding faith, in a cause, I repeat, regarding faith, that bishops have been accustomed to judge of Christian emperors, not emperors of bishops? With the blessing of God, you will become of riper years, and then will you have your own opinion, what sort of bishop that is who will fling the sacerdotal right under the feet of laymen. Your father, who was, by God's blessing, of riper years, said, "It belongs not to me to judge between bishops"; and now your clemency says, "It is my place to judge."

T. ii. Ep. xxi. Valentin, n. 45, pp. 860, 861.
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St. Jerome, (A.D. 342-420), Dalmatian; born in Strido; priest, hermit, abbot, biblical scholar, translator and Doctor of the Church. In an age distinguished by men of the greatest eloquence and learning, St. Jerome, especially in all matters connected with the Sacred Scriptures, was then preeminent, and has probably never since been equalled.

"My resolution is, to read the ancients, to try everything, to hold fast what is good, and not to recede from the faith of the Catholic Church."

T. i. Ep. ad Minerv. et Alexand. n. xi. col. 810.
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"I might spend the day in such argumentation, and drain utterly dry all the streamlets of their assertions by the sun alone of the Church. But as we have already discoursed at much length, and the prolixness of the dispute has wearied the attention of the hearers, I will lay before you a brief and plain sentiment of my mind, — that we are to abide in that Church, which, founded by the Apostles, endures even unto this day."

T. ii. adv. Luciferi. n. 27, col. 201. For continuation, see " Apostolicity
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Commenting on Isaiah 26:18:

"They shall not fall who have their abode in the universe, and their resting-place in the Church, which is the abode of the Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost."

T. iv. Lib. viii. Comm. in Is. col. 356.
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"Look upon Sion, the city of our solemnity (Isaiah 33:20), behold the Church of Christ, wherein there is a true solemnity: Thine eyes shall see a vision of peace, and unhoped-for treasures, which eye has not seen, nor ear heard, neither have they entered into the heart of man, and a tabernacle that cannot be removed. For the former tabernacle which the Jewish people had was removed, and taken away; neither shall the nails thereof be moved forever, and all the cords thereof shall he firm; so that the Lord shall dwell therein; a place of all the rivers and flowing streams through which none of the adverse party shall be able to sail, nor the great Galley, which signifies the Devil, shall be able to pass through it, because the Lord Himself is our judge, and Prince, and King, and Saviour, and under His protection we shall not fear the snares of any one."

T. iv. L. x. col. 439, 440.
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"There stands one in the midst of you whom you know not; and He will dwell there not for a short time, as in the synagogue, but forever, as is verified in the Church of Christ."

T. v. L. xiii. Comm. in Ezech. col. 523.
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"About this corn and wine (the Eucharist) heretics are torn in pieces, and build unto themselves divers tabernacles; or in fact they are cut off from the body of the Church, and affect to meditate and to muse on the law of the Lord. But doing this they withdraw from the Lord who taught them in the Church, and gave them strength to fight against the enemy. But they have thought evil against the Lord, raising up most impious heresies, and have retrograded unto the condition of the Gentiles, so as to be without the knowledge and the yoke of God; or they have reverted to nothingness; not that they have ceased to be, ... but that all who are wise against the Lord, are said not to be. . . . For if God is truth, whatsoever is opposed to the truth is a lie, and is called nothingness. This suits heretics, who, taught out of the Holy Scriptures, turn the words of the Law and the Prophets and the Gospel against the Lord."

T. vi. L. ii. Comm. in Osee, col. 80.
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"As lightning comes out of the east, and appears even into the west," — (Matthew 24:27) Go ye not out. Believe not that the Son of Man is either in the desert of the Gentiles, or in the secret chambers of the heretics but that from the East even to the West His faith shines in the Catholic churches."

T. vii. L. iv. Comm. in Matt. 196, 197.
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"And lo! I am with you always, even unto the consummation of the world. He that promises that He will be with the Disciples unto the consummation of the world, both shows that they were to live forever, and that Himself would not withdraw from believers."

T. vii. L. iv. Comm. in Matt, col. 244
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St. John Chrysostom, (A.D. 344 - 407), Syrian; archbishop, Doctor of the Church. Born at Antioch in 344; he was ordained priest in A.D. 383, and raised to the see of Constantinople in the year A.D. 398. His eloquence gained him the title of Chrysostom, or the mouth of gold. His expositions of Scripture, especially the Epistles of St. Paul, are very valuable. This illustrious prelate died on his road to exile, in A.D. 407.

Expounding on Matthew 25 he says,

What, then, did He say, when He beheld them? "All power is given to me in Heaven and on earth." Again, does He address them as men; for as yet they had not received that Spirit which had power to make them elevated: "Going teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you." His commands are concerning both dogmas and precepts. . . . Then, whereas he had commanded them great things, raising up their minds, He says, "Lo, I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world." Seest thou His authority? Seest thou also how, for condescension's sake, He spoke these things? Not with them only did He say He would be, but also with all those who shall believe after them. For truly the Apostles were not going to remain until the consummation of the world; but He addresses Himself to the believers as one body. For tell me not, He says, of the difficulty of these things, for "I am with you;" I, making all things easy. The same also He had frequently said to the prophets in the old law: both to Jeremias, when putting forward his youth, and to Moses and Ezechiel when they drew back; "I," He said, "am with you." That same thing He says to these men.

T. vii. Hom. 90, in Matt, in loco, n. 2, p. 950.
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St. Gaudentius of Brescia, (unknown - A.D. 410), Italian; became bishop around A.D. 387, theologian and author of many letters and sermons, held in high esteem by the people of Brescia.

"Neither did the Father, as we have already said, leave the Son, who was sent; neither, as is proved, was the Holy Ghost, who was to be sent to the Apostles, ever absent from the Father and the Son; yet so, that the Son of God only was incarnate: for the Word was made flesh, as we read, and not the Father, not the Spirit. But in what manner the Son of God accomplished this mystery of the Incarnation, without injury to the unity of the Trinity, Omnipotence itself is the witness; seeing that the same Son of God in such wise ascended into Heaven with the body of man which He had taken on Him, as to continue even unto the end of the world with His disciples. For, "Behold I am, says He, with you all days, even to the consummation of the world. (Matthew 28) Even to the consummation of the world", He says, "I am with you"; not only with the Apostles, but with the disciples, to wit, with all believers."

Tr. xiv. De Promiss. Paracl, p. 966, t. v. Bibl. Max. PP.
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St. Paulinus of Nola, (A.D. 353-431), Roman; convert and bishop Of Nola, Born at Bordeaux he was ordained priest in 393, and was appointed bishop of Nola in 409; may have been indirectly responsible for Augustine's Confessions. One who knew St. Paulinus well says he was "meek as Moses, as priestly as Aaron, innocent as Samuel, tender as David, wise as Solomon, apostolic as Peter, loving as John, cautious as Thomas, brilliant as Stephen, fervent as Apollos."

Let Him kiss me with the kiss of His mouth. (Canticles 1)

"This privilege Catholic love alone has a right to claim for itself; she, that is the alone one, and the perfect one to her one bridegroom (Canticles 6:8), takes the kisses of truth from the Word Himself, that she may not be defiled by the venom of heretical deceitfulness, as though by incestuous kisses from a stranger's lips."

Ep. iv. ad Severum, p. 177. T. vi. Bib. Max. SS. PP.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 85

St. Augustine of Hippo, (A.D. 354-428), North African; born in Tagaste in A.D. 354, baptized in Milan in A.D. 387, ordained a priest in A.D. 391 and appointed bishop of Hippo in A.D. 395, Augustine is one of our greatest theologians. His numerous works display genius of the highest order, and have ever had great weight in the Christian churches. He is also a Doctor of the Church.

Having shown the office and authority of the Church and of the priesthood, he uses this illustration:

"Hence also, Paul, on hearing the voice of the Lord, "Why persecutest thou me? and, I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom thou persecutest", was nevertheless sent to Ananias, that by that priesthood which is established in the Church, he might receive the sacrament of the doctrine of faith, and his color (alluding to the leprosy) be approved of as true. Not that the Lord is not able by Himself to do all things, for what other but He does these things even in the Church?"

T. iii. l. ii. Quaest. Evangel, n. 40, pp. 1644, 1645.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 79

"In the Catholic Church, not to mention that most sound wisdom, to the knowledge of which a few spiritual men attain in this life, so as to know it in a very small measure indeed, for they are but men, but still to know it without doubtfulness, for not quickness of understanding, but simplicity in believing, that makes the rest of the masses most safe, — not to mention, therefore, this wisdom, which you (Manichees) do not believe to be in the Catholic Church, many other things there are which most justly keep me in her bosom. The agreement of peoples and of nations keeps me; an authority begun with miracles, nourished with hope, increased with charity, strengthened (confirmed) by antiquity, keeps me; the succession of priests from the chair itself of the Apostle Peter — unto whom the Lord, after His resurrection committed His sheep to be fed — down even to the present bishop, keeps me; finally, the name itself of the Catholic Church keeps me, — a name which, in the midst of so many heresies, this Church alone has, not without cause, so held possession of (or obtained), as that, though all heretics would fain have themselves called Catholics, yet, to the inquiry of any stranger, "Where is the meeting of the Catholic Church held?" No heretic would dare to point out his own basilica, or house. These, therefore, so numerous and so powerful ties of the Christian name, ties most dear, justly keep a believing man in the Catholic Church, even though through the slowness of our understanding or the deservings of our lives, truth show not herself as yet in her clearest light. Whereas, amongst you, where are none of these things to invite and keep me, there is only the loud promise of truth, which, if it be indeed shown to be so manifest as not to be able to be called into doubt, is to be preferred before all those things by which I am kept in the Catholic Church; but which, if it be only promised, and not exhibited, no one shall move me from that faith which attaches my mind to the Christian religion by ties so numerous and so powerful. Wherefore, let us see what Manichaeus would teach me. ... He begins his letter, "Manichseus, an Apostle of Jesus Christ". . . . Now attend, if you please, with all patience, to what I am going to ask. I do not believe that this man is an Apostle of Christ. Do not, I pray you, be angry, and begin to revile. For you know what my determination is, — not to believe, without cause shown, anything advanced by you. I ask, therefore, who is this Manichaeus? You will answer, "An apostle of Christ." I do not believe it; what next to say or do you will not know; for your promise was the knowledge of the truth, and now you would compel me to believe that of which I have no knowledge. You are perhaps going to read me the Gospel, and will try to establish the character of Manichaeus from that. But suppose you should meet with some one who does not as yet believe the Gospel, what would you do with such an one when he says to you, "I do not believe it?" I, for my part, would not believe the Gospel, unless the authority of the Catholic Church moved me to it. Those, therefore, to whom I have submitted, when saying to me, "Believe the Gospel", why should I not submit to them when they say to me, "Do not believe the Manichaeans?" Choose which you will. If you say, "Believe the Catholics", they warn me not to give any credit to you; wherefore, whilst I believe them, I cannot but not believe you. If you say, "Do not believe the Catholics", it will not be right for you to force me to the faith of Manichaeus by means of the Gospel, inasmuch as I believed that very Gospel itself at the bidding (teaching) of the Catholics. But if you should say, "You have done right in believing the Catholics when they praise the Gospel, but you have not done right in believing them when they blame Manichseus", do you think me so foolish, as, without reason assigned, to believe just what you choose, and to disbelieve just what you choose? Much more justly indeed, and more cautiously do I act, if, after having once (on one point) believed the Catholics, I refuse to pass over to you; unless, not content with bidding me believe, you cause me to obtain some knowledge, and that most manifestly and most plainly. Wherefore if you are going to assign me some reasonable proof, set aside the Gospel. If you keep yourself to the Gospel, I will keep myself to those at whose bidding I have believed the Gospel; and by their command I will not believe you at all. Now, if it should happen that you could find in the Gospel something most plain concerning the apostleship of Manichaeus, you will invalidate, in my regard, the authority of the Catholics who bid me not believe you; and, that authority invalidated, it will then be out of my power to believe even the Gospel, inasmuch as through them I had believed it: so that whatever you may adduce thence, will have no force with me. Wherefore, if nothing plain is found in the Gospel concerning the apostleship of Manichaeus, I will believe the Catholics rather than you; whereas, should you read from it something clearly in favor of Manichaeus, I will neither believe them nor you. Not them, because they have deceived me in regard of you; not you, because you produce me that Scripture which I have believed through those who have thus deceived me. But God forbid that I should not believe the Gospel!"

T. viii Contr. Ep. Manichaei, Fundam. n. 5, 6, col. 268-270.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 80-83

"Now, although no example of the matter in question (whether a person baptized by a heretic ought to be rebaptized) can be produced from the canonical Scriptures; yet, in this matter also, is the truth of the canonical Scriptures held by us, since we do that which has now obtained the sanction of the universal Church, which (Church) the authority of the Scriptures themselves commends: so that, as holy Scripture cannot deceive, whoso fears to be deceived by the obscurity of this question, may consult on it that same Church which, without any ambiguity, holy Scripture points out (demonstrates). But if thou doubtest that this holy Scripture commends the Church which, in most abundant masses, is diffused throughout all nations (for if thou didst not doubt, thou wouldst not still be in the party of Donatus), I will overwhelm thee with many most manifest testimonies from the said authority, so that if thou wilt not be beyond measure perverse, thou shalt, by thine own concessions, be brought to this also."

T. ix. I 1, Contr. Crescon. Donat. n. 39, p. 638.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 84

St. John Cassian, (A.D. c.360 - 433), ordained a deacon by St. John Chrysostom and a priest in Marseilles, a Christian theologian celebrated in both the Western and Eastern Churches for his mystical writings. He is known both as one of the "Scythian monks" and as one of the "Desert Fathers". His opinions on grace being in opposition somewhat to those of St. Augustine and the Church, caused him to be opposed by St. Prosper.

"This faith, that is, the faith of all Catholics, both the bishops of Africa whence he wrote, and the Gallican bishops to whom he wrote, agreed in approving. Nor has there yet been any man living who has repudiated this faith, without being guilty of the crime of unbelief, seeing that it is a profession of unbelief to deny the approved of belief. Wherefore, the agreement alone of all would now suffice to refute heresy, because the authority of all is the manifestation of undoubted truth, and a perfect reason has been assigned when none dissent. Insomuch that the man who should presume to entertain a contrary sentiment, such an one's assertion is at once, and at the very outset, not so much to be refused to be heard, as he is to be condemned for his perversity; because he who impugns the judgment of the whole, brings with him a foregone proof of condemnation against himself; and whoso would rescind what all have once agreed upon, has no plea to be heard. For when the truth has once been confirmed by all, whatsoever is advanced in opposition to it, is at once thereby to be acknowledged as false, in that it diverges from that judgment of truth."

L. 1, De Incarn, Dom, t. vii. Bib. Max. SS. PP. p. 71.
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"I would convince you by the authority of the sacred testimonies; I would convince you by the voice of the Law itself; I would convince you, finally, by the truth of the creed which is approved of throughout the whole world; I would say to you, that even though you were devoid of understanding and sense, yet ought you to follow, at all events, the consent of mankind, and not set the perverseness of a few above the faith of all the churches, a faith, in fact, which, established by Christ, delivered by the Apostles, is to be accounted no other than the voice and authority of God; and which, in fact, would have in it both the voice and meaning of God."

L. 1, De Incarn, Dom, t. vii. Bib. Max. SS. PP. p. 89.
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Paulus Orosius (A.D. c.375-c.418), Spanish; a Christian historian, theologian, student and friend of Augustine of Hippo. He is best known for his "Seven Books of History Against the Pagans". His "History of the World" is valuable, and has been frequently translated.

"The Fathers with one accord, and the Martyrs, who are now at rest, Cyprian, Hilary, and Ambrose, as also they who are still in the flesh, and are the pillars and supports of the Catholic Church, Aurelius, Augustine, Jerome, have already in their highly-approved writings, published much against this wicked heresy (Pelagianism), though without specifying the names of the heretics. And if Celestius and Pelagius, who seem to be alive, and are dead, should now persevere in these dogmas, then clearly do they openly, as serpents, hiss against the Church, a thing most lamentable, and, more lamentable still, they do this in the Church. . . . My answer to this (viz. Genesis 17:1; Luke 1:6, quoted in support of Pelagianism) was: We are children of the Catholic Church. Require not of us to presume to be teachers above the teachers, or judges above the judges. The Fathers whom the universal Church throughout the world approves, to whose communion it is a matter of rejoicing with you that we adhere, have decreed that these dogmas are damnable. It becomes us to obey, when they adjudge. Why ask the children what their sentiments are, when you hear what the Fathers decide? "

De Arbitrii Libert, p. 449, t. vi. Bib. Max. SS. PP.
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St. Cyril of Alexandria, (A.D. 376-444), Egyptian; bishop, theologian and Doctor of the Church. He succeeded Theophilus in the patriarchal see of Alexandria, in A.D. 412, and was the great champion of orthodoxy against Nestorius, against whom the general council of Ephesus was called, in A.D. 431 and in which St. Cyril presided.

"Whoso walketh in justice shall dwell in the lofty cavern of a firm rock. — (Isaiah 33) That rock is Christ . . . and the cavern that is in Christ may be understood to be the Church, that dwelling place of the saints, that roof over the pious, under which the just have their abode, and as many indeed as escape from the punishment of fire."

T. i. l. i. De Adorat. in Sp. et Ver. p. 31.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 89

Explaining Numbers 9:15 and the succeeding passages:

"As soon as that truest tabernacle, the Church to wit, was reared up and appeared upon the earth, it was filled with the glory of Christ, — for that former tabernacle's being covered until a cloud signifies, in my opinion, but this. Christ, therefore, filled the Church with His own glory. . . . Now, when that cloud was taken up, the tabernacle was at the same time raised, and when the cloud stood still, the tabernacle also was pitched, and the Israelites acted uniformly with that cloud: for the Church follows Christ everywhere, and the holy multitude of believers is never separated from Him that calls them unto salvation."

T. i. l. i. De Adorat. in Sp. et Ver. v.p. 164.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 89

Explaining Isaiah 14:20:

"It is, therefore, a most grievous thing to raise one's self up against the land of the Lord, that is, the Church."

T. ii. Comm. in Isaiah l. ii. t. ii. p. 236.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 89

On Isaiah 49:14, he says:

"This is a promise as it were to the intellectual Sion, unto which the most wise Paul says, that they who have believed have come; that thou mayest hereby understand the Church, which has been gathered together from out the Gentiles and Jews, which (Church) is a type of that which is above, of which also Paul reminds us, saying, "But that Jerusalem which is above, is free, which is the mother of us all. — (Galatians 4) For it is the city of the living God, and the nurse of the first-born, and the mother of the saints whose names are registered in Heaven, and a Church which Christ never will forget. For He loves the Church which He has formed for Himself; having formed the two peoples "into one new man, and reconciled them both in one body" with the Father. (Ephesians 2) How, then, can He forget His own body, that is, the Church, of which He is the head?"

T. ii. Comm. in Esai. l. iv. or. iv. x. p. 674.
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"For this cause (on account of Christ) the children of the Church are in great peace, our mother being built up in righteousness. For none of those that are wont to speak vain things shall injure those who are perfectly taught of God; but they are at peace with God, being united to Him by love, and reverencing the ways of justice. But in this way does He build the Church, and effect for her that she be immovable, Christ protecting her as with a shield, and granting unto her to be incapable of being moved; "for the gates of Hell, He says, shall not prevail against her." For, concerning her also is it written in the book of Psalms, "And He built His sanctuary as of unicorns on the earth: He hath founded it forever." (Psalms 87) We say that the sanctuary is the Church which raises its horn to repel its enemies, even as does the unicorn against other animals. For it has been founded unto eternity by Christ."

T. ii. Comm. in Esai. v. t. ii. pp. 768, 769.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 90

Explaining Isaiah 62:2:

"For it is no longer called a synagogue, but the Church of the living God, His city also, and His house. For of the Church does David also make mention, speaking thus,

"Glorious things are said of thee, city of God; and Isaiah teaches that she will be exceedingly beautiful, and made glorious with surpassing beauty, saying, "Thou shalt be a crown of beauty in the hand of the Lord, and a royal diadem in the hand of thy God. And thou shalt be no more called Forsaken, and thy land shall no more be called Desolate, but thou shalt be called my Pleasure. (Isaiah 62:3,4)...After that the two people had been formed into one, and the Church composed of both, called one, God vouchsafes unto her not to be in any way soever entangled in former evils, nor to be called the Forsaken, or the Desolate, but to be called His Pleasure, and to be called no longer the Desolate, but the Peopled. And this we see, from facts, has been the event."

T. ii. Comm. in Esai. L. v. t. v.pp. 870, 871.
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On Zacharias 2:1-5:

"This vision may with justice be explained of the Church of Christ. For Satan had tyrannized over all the inhabitants of the earth, and we had become slaves, constrained under his yoke. But the grace of the Saviour broke his horn, and lowered his pride, for He triumphed over principalities and powers, and the rulers of the world, and adverse powers; He rescued and freed us from his fetters. He raised up our Church, truly the holy and famous city, wide, and of vast length, in which we have dwelt with fruit, both men and animals; that is, both they who have already been instructed, and they who have not as yet arrived at this point, but will nevertheless do so, being still under initiation. We have inhabited a city which Christ Himself walls round, with power ineffable consuming all adversaries with fire, and filling it with His glory, and standing as it were in the midst of those who dwell therein, unto whom He gave the promise, saying, "Lo, I am with you all the days until the end of the world." And the prophet Isaiah, in a certain place, makes mention of the holy city in these words: "Thine eyes shall see Jerusalem, a rich city, tabernacles which shall never be moved, neither shall the stakes thereof be stirred, nor the cords thereof be broken." (Isaiah 103)

T. iii. Comm. in Zach. pp. 666, 667.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 91-92

On Zacharias 4:1-3:

"Further, we say that the golden candlestick is the Church, as being honored in the world, exceedingly resplendent in virtues, as being raised far on high by the doctrines of the true knowledge of God; upon which (Church) there is a lamp, Christ, that is, of whom God the Father says, "For Sion's sake I will not hold my peace, and for the sake of Jerusalem I will not rest until my justice come forth as a light, and my salvation burn as a lamp. (Isaiah 42) This lamp, which enlightens all under Heaven, God the Father has placed upon a candlestick, that all who enter in may see the light, and that it "may shine to all who are in the house". (Matthew 5) But there are seven lamps which have not a light of their own, but one that is communicated, and from an external source, and is fed by supplies of oil; and these signify the holy Apostles, as also the Evangelists, and those who have, in their respective days, been the teachers of the churches, who have received, as it were lamps into their minds and hearts, illumination from Christ; and they have the illumination fed by supplies from the Holy Ghost, (they) sending abundant light to those who are in the house, and at the same time illuminating with that lamp the believers. . . . Observe .how there are upon the candlestick together with the lamp, lights also. For Christ is with us in the Church, and the multitude of believers having found mercy is illuminated by a light from Him, and has also light by means of the lamps, which have a derived light, and one that is communicated by Him."

T. iii. Comm. in Zach. pp. 683, 684.
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On Zacharias 11:13:

"Cast them into the furnace, and I will see if they be approved." The prophet says that there is a refiner's furnace in the house of the Lord. For the Church of Christ tries each one's manners, and the sincerity of his love towards Christ; and having the discernment of spirits, she knows accurately who, when naming the Lord Jesus, speaks in the Holy Ghost, and who in Beelzebub says anathema unto Him; and who are the true worshippers, and who, again, come unto us, wolves as it were in sheep's clothing."

T. iii. Comm. in Zach. p. 767. 778, 779.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 92-93

"That the enemies of truth were to be in every place and way, utterly impotent, the Saviour Himself also clearly declares, saying, "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of Hell will not prevail." Lo, here He calls those who assail her, gates, as being destructive and pestilential, and generally leading down to the depths of Hell those who adhere to them."

T. iii. Comm. in Zach. p. 782.
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"Was then the Saviour, after returning to the Father, separated from the disciples, and yet with them by the energy, and power, and charity of the Spirit? How, and in what manner? For He deceives not when He says, "Lo, I am with you all days, even to the end of the world"; except as regards the flesh and the presence of the body, this is past all doubt."

T. iv. Comm. in Joan. l. x. p. 916.
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"The divine Paul exhorts to be most wary of mind, saying, "Try yourselves, if you be in the faith." (2 Corinthians 13:5) For the human mind, though, when under the influence of self love, it may be borne away from out the right road, and be under an influence which withdraws it from the dogmas of truth, is always somehow grieved and afraid to charge its own thoughts with absurdity. And yet it will set itself right, and that very easily, if, after having examined the works of the holy Fathers, who enjoy amongst all men a well-known reputation both for the orthodoxy and accuracy of their doctrines, it shall then try with befitting skill its own faith. For it is the aim of all who are sound at heart to follow the sentiments of those men, because they also filled their minds with both the apostolic and evangelic tradition, and having regulated very accurately their discourse concerning the faith, both rightly and irreprehensibly out of the sacred writings, were lights in the world, retaining the word of life according as it is written."

T. v. par. ii. Apolog. Adv. Orient. Anath. 8, pp. 177, 178.
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Socrates of Constantinople, (A.D. c.380-c.440), also known as Socrates Scholasticus, not to be confused with the Greek philosopher Socrates, was a Greek Christian church historian, a contemporary of Sozomen and Theodoret, who used his work; he was born at Constantinople A.D. c.380: His Ecclesiastical History is, for the most part, a continuation of that by Eusebius. It begins with the year 306, and closes with the year 439.

Having narrated that the emperor caused the bishops and heads of the various sects to be assembled together, in order, if possible, to bring about unity of faith, he says:

"The emperor having sent for Nectarius, bishop (of Constantinople), conferred with him as to what means could be used that Christendom might no longer be at discord, but the Church be united; and said that the question that divided the churches must be discussed, and having set aside diversity, unanimity be produced in the churches. When Nectarius heard this, he was lost in thought, and having sent for Agelius, who, agreeing with him in faith, was at that time a bishop of the Novatians, he made known to him the mind of the emperor. But, though in other respects a religious man, not being one who had ability to stand a discussion regarding doctrine, he chose the lector, Sisinnius by name, to discuss. But Sisinnius, a learned and experienced man, and one well skilled both in the interpretations of the sacred writings, and in the doctrines of the philosophers, knew that discussions do not bring schisms to unity, but even rather make heresies more contentious; he, therefore, gave Nectarius some such advice as this. Knowing that the ancients were abhorrent from as signing any beginning of existence to the Son of God, for they accounted Him co-eternal with the Father, he advises him to avoid any logical encounters, but to call in as witnesses the expositions of the ancients; and that the heresiarchs be asked by the emperor whether they make any account of the united doctors who were before the division in the Church, or whether they repudiated them as aliens from Christianity. For if they reject them, then let them dare to anathematize them; and should they dare to do this, they will be driven away by the people. And this done, the victory of the truth will be manifest. But if they do not repudiate the ancients, it is for us to produce the books of the ancients by which our doctrine will be testified to. When Nestorius had heard this from Sisinnius, he went in haste to the palace, and makes known to the emperor what he had been advised. But he eagerly seizes the opinion, and handled the matter skillfully. For, without declaring his object beforehand, he merely asked whether they make account of, and receive what (was held) by the doctors who preceded the division in the Church? And as they did not deny this, but declare that they even honor them very much as guides, the emperor next inquired whether they adhered to (marched with) such faith-worthy witnesses of Christian doctrine? "When the leaders of those sects, and their dialecticians, for there were many with them well prepared for the logical conflict, heard this, they knew not what to do. For there arose a difference of opinion amongst them, some saying that the proposal of the emperor was fair, but others that it was not conducive to their object. For they were variously disposed towards the books of the ancients, and they no longer agreed amongst themselves; and they not only dissented from other sects, but even they who were of the same heresy disagreed among themselves. The accordant (univocal) wickedness, like the language of the giants of old, was divided, and this tower of wickedness was overthrown. But the emperor, acquainted with their wide-spread separation, and that they confided in disputation only, and not in the expositions of the ancients, proceeded to a second purpose."

Hist. Eccles. l. v. c. x. pp. 272, 273.
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St. Prosper of Aquitain, (A.D.c.390- c.463), a Christian writer and disciple of St. Augustine, as well as the friend and secretary of Pope Leo I. He was the first continuator of Jerome's Universal Chronicle. Prosper was a layman, but he threw himself with ardour into the religious controversies of his day, defending Augustine and propagating orthodoxy.

"The sun hath arisen, and they are gathered together." — (Psalms 103:22.) The sun hath risen, because the sun went down; that is, Christ after death rose again, and filled the whole world with a manifestation of His brightness; and although darkness may still linger in the hearts of unbelievers, yet the Church throughout the whole world, in which the sun hath arisen, is in the midst of light . . . Therein the ships shall go (Psalms 103:26). Though (the princes of this world) may oppose the Christian religion, yet is the course of our ships safe in the midst of them; that is, amidst the storms and waves of the sea, the career of the Church is, Christ presiding, safe."

In Ps. ciii. col. 389, 390.
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Thy truth from generation to generation, Thou hast founded the earth, and it continues. (Psalms 118:90, Lamed). "After the heavenly Jerusalem, he had regard also to his (or her) daughter, the Church, which abides in this world, and he said, Thy truth from generation to generation. But, by this repetition, he either signified all generations to which the truth of God was not wanting, or he wished two generations to be understood; one to wit, pertaining to the Law and the Prophets, and the other to the Gospel, (based) on the everlasting foundation, which is Christ; and the earth continueth, which (earth) established on such a foundation is not moved forever and ever."

In Psalms cxviii. col. 451.
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The sun shall not burn thee by day, nor the moon by night. (Psalms 120:6) "By the sun, Christ, the true light, is signified; and by the moon, the Church, made by (His) illumination a light, is signified. As, therefore, every scandal, where by man is either weakened or burned, springs from two causes, in that he either errs in the confession of the Godhead, or withdraws from the unity of the Church, the protection of God bestows this, that, in faith and charity, which are His gifts, we be not overcome by any temptation."

In Psalms cxx. col. 467
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Until I find a place for the Lord, a tabernacle for the God of Jacob. (Psalms 134:5) "He, therefore, is made a place for the Lord, and a tabernacle for the God of Jacob, whoso is united to the Church; whoso, by the spirit of charity, is joined to the body of Christ, nor ever seeks to be blessed, save in that house, of which it is said: Blessed are they that dwell in Thy house, Lord : they shall praise Thee for ever and ever."

In Ps. cxxxi. col. 481.
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He hath blessed thy children within thee. (Psalms 147:13) "Out of Jerusalem there is no blessing. For no one is sanctified save he who is united to the Church, which is the body of Christ."

In Psalms cxlvii. col. 526.
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Pope St. Leo I, ( A.D. c.391-461), also known as Leo the Great, bishop of Rome (A.D. 440 to 461); an Italian aristocrat, remembered theologically for issuing the Tome of Leo, a document which was foundational to the debates of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon.

Be ever mindful of the apostolic precept, which admonishes all men, saying, "Beware lest any man cheat you by philosophy and vain deceit; according to the tradition of men, and not according to Christ. For in Him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead corporally, and you are filled with Him. (Colossians 2)

He said not spiritually, but corporally, that we may understand the veritable substance of flesh, where there is the corporal indwelling of the fullness of the Godhead; with which (corporal indwelling) the whole Church is in truth also filled, which cleaving (inherent) to the head, is the body of Christ."

T. i. Serm. xxviii. In Nativ. Dom. ix. c. vii. p. 102.
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"He it is who ascends above the heights of Heaven, and even to the consummation of the world leaves not the universal Church."

Serm. xxx. In Nat. Dom. x. c. v. p. 109.
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"For though it belong not to this life, but to eternal life, that God be all in all, yet even now is He the inseparable indweller of His own temple, which is the Church, according as Himself promised, saying, "Behold, I am with you all days even to the consummation of the world." With which is accordant what the Apostle says,

18 And he is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he may hold the primacy: 19 Because in him, it hath well pleased the Father, that all fullness should dwell; 20 And through him to reconcile all things unto himself, making peace through the blood of his cross, both as to the things that are on earth, and the things that are in Heaven."

Colossians 1:18-20

Serm. lxiii. De Passio. Dom. xii. c. ii. p. 244.
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Directing upon what conditions the Pelagians were to be received into the Church, he says,

"Let them, by their own clear confessions, condemn the authors of their proud error, and let them execrate in their doctrine whatsoever the universal Church has abhorred."

Sem. Ep. i. ad Aquilei. c. ii. p. 591.
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"For it is nowise to be borne, that the man who has under taken the office of preaching the faith, should dare dispute against the Gospel of Christ; against the apostolic doctrine; against the creed of the universal Church. What kind of disciples will there be there, where such are the masters that teach?"

Sem. Ep. xv. ad Turrib. Ep. Asturic. c. xvii.p. 710.
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"Our Lord Jesus Christ, after that He rose again from the dead, delivered to His disciples, in whom all the prelates of the Church were taught, both the form and the power of baptizing, saying, "Go ye and teach all nations." (Matthew 28)

Sem. ep. xvi. Ad Univers. Episc.per Sicil. c. iii. p. 719.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 111

The divine protection abandons not its own Church, the Lord declaring, "Behold I am with you all days, even to the end of the world."

Ep. lx. Pulch. Aug. p. 982.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 112

"It is not lawful to differ, even by one word, from the evangelic and apostolic doctrine, or to think otherwise concerning the divine Scriptures than as the blessed Apostles and our Fathers learned and taught."

Ep. lxxxii. ad Marcion. Aug. pp. 10, 44.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 112

"The Catholic faith, which, the Spirit of God instructing us through the holy Fathers, we from blessed Apostles have learnt and teach, will not suffer either error (the Nestorian and Eutychian) to creep in."

Ep. lxxxix. ad Marc. Aug. p. 1061
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 112

"We, therefore, pray, and beseech your clemency, by our Lord Jesus Christ . . . that you suffer not, in the present synod, that faith delivered unto them by the Apostles which our blessed Fathers taught, to be treated of again as though dubious; and that you permit not the things which were formerly condemned by the authority of our forefathers, to be revived by renewed efforts; and that you command this rather, that the things settled by the old Nicean Council, the interpretation of heretics set aside, be permanent."

Ep. xc. ad Marc. c. 2, p. 1064.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 112

"For the restlessness or pravity of a few individuals being either crushed, or removed, a laudable concord will easily be settled; provided the hearts of all concur in that faith made known by the evangelic and apostolic declarations, which we have, through our holy Fathers, received and held; no discussion whatever involving any retractation being allowed of, lest, through vain and deceitful subtlety, those things may seem to be either weak or doubtful, which from the beginning were built on the chief corner-stone, which is Christ the Lord, and which things will endure without end."

Ep. xciv. ad eund. p. 1075.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 112-113

"As, then, the universal Church has, through the establishing (building) of that principal rock, been made a rock, and the first of the Apostles, the most blessed Peter, heard from the voice of the Lord declaring, "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church"; who is there, but either the antichrist or the Devil, who can dare to assail an impregnable firmness; who, continuing unchangeable in his malice, by means of vessels of wrath suited to his own deceitfulness, under the false name of eloquence, while he falsely affects to seek for truth, seeks to sow lies?"

Ep. clvi. ad Leon. Aug. c. 2, pp. 1322, 1333.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 113

Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus, (A.D. 393-458), Greek; an influential author, theologian, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus, Syria (A.D. 423-457). He played a pivotal role in many early Byzantine church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. His friendship for Nestorius embroiled him, for a time, with his great contemporary, St. Cyril of Alexandria.

"Great is the Lord, and exceedingly to le praised in the city of our God, in His holy mountain." (Psalms 47)

"We have already said that the divine Scripture frequently designates as a city, not the buildings, but its internal regulation; he accordingly says that the Lord has been shown to be great, by what He has done for His city, which the sublimity of its dogmas has made conspicuous, even as a city upon a great and lofty hill; for a city, the Lord says, set upon a hill, cannot be hid. He has built, he says, this city, well, beautifully and solidly, to the joy of the whole earth. For, He built it, says the divine Apostle, "upon the foundation of the Apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner-stone." (Ephesians 2) And the Lord Himself said to blessed Peter, "And upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of Hell shall not prevail against it." (Matthew 16) Wherefore that phrase rooting it well is instead of founding it solidly, so as to endure without tottering, and unshaken.

"The Mountain of Sion (on) the sides of the north, the city of the great King". . . . The mountains which repel the northwinds, and keep the city uninjured, one may reasonably say are the prophets and Apostles, and their various doctrines, and, furthermore, the angels who are set over believers. "For the angel of the Lord shall encamp round about them that fear Him. (Psalm 130) In her houses is God known, when He shall take her in charge. One, indeed, is the Church through out all earth and sea; for which cause, when we pray, we say — "For the holy and alone Catholic and Apostolic Church, which is from one end of the earth to the other." That same city, again, is divided into cities and towns and villages, which the prophetic word denominates houses. As every city has in it many separate houses, and is nevertheless called one city, so are there tens of thousands and countless churches, both on the islands and continents, but they are all perfected together into one Church, united by the concord of the true doctrines. In these churches, he says that the God of all is seen furnishing His own aid. He next foretells the assaults that were to be, and the conversion of her adversaries. "For behold the kings of the earth assembled themselves, they gathered together. So they saw and wondered." (verse 6) For they hastened together as though about to make war, but when they beheld the unconquerableness of her whom they warred against, they were struck with consternation. "For they were troubled", he says, they were moved. (verses 6, 7) Having contemplated, he says, the solid foundations of the Church, and learnt the unerring truth of the promise, they were seized with fear and trembling, like men who are crossing the waves (backs) of the sea, and are tossed with storms, and expecting utter destruction. Wherefore, having ceased from fighting and assaulting, they proclaim the power of their antagonist, and cry out, "As we have heard, so have we seen, in the city of the Lord of Hosts, in the city of our God." For not willing to admit the predictions concerning her, we have, by facts, become witnesses to their truth. "God hath founded her unto eternity." For it is His voice, "Upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of Hell shall not prevail against it." (Matthew 16) The prophetic word having thus shown the change of her enemies, next foretells what words they will make use of who have found safety (or salvation). "We have received Thy mercy, God, in the midst of Thy temple." We look for, they say, this Thine aid, O Lord, knowing the unerring truth of Thy promises. For Thou didst say, "I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world? Distribute her houses (verse 14), so as that one may look after this, and an other after that church, and that the husbandman be set over, and take befitting care of each. And this does he order to be done, not for once, or twice, but in every generation. And for this cause he added, "That ye may relate it unto another generation. For this is our God for ever and ever, He shepherds (or feeds, rules) us for evermore." For each generation must needs transmit to the one after it what it received from the preceding, that so the saving Gospel may be transmitted in all generations, and all men may know that He is our Lord and God, and good shepherd, and everlasting. For as he said, "Distribute her houses", and committed the feeding to them, he necessarily taught that one is the "good Shepherd who laid down His life for the sheep", feeding them forever and ever, and feeding not the sheep only, but those also who are called the shepherds of the sheep."

T. i. in Ps. xlvii. pp. 907-913.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 94-97

Blessed Isaias, (lived in the 4th century), Abbot

"Do not, even for the sake of defending the faith, converse with heretics, for fear lest their words instill their venom into thy mind. If thou meet with a book said to be by one of the heretics, read it not, lest it fill thy heart with deadly poison; but so continue in that doctrine which thou hast learnt in holy Church, as neither to add to nor take from it."

Orat. iv. n. 6 ; Galland. t. vii. p. 283.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 61

St. Vincent of Lérins (A.D. c.400-445), in Latin, Vincentius, a monastic presbyter and ecclesiastical writer in the island of Lérins, he was a man learned in the Holy Scriptures, and well instructed in the knowledge of the doctrines of the Church, with a view to overthrow the sects of the heretics. He composed in elegant and clear language a very powerful dissertation, which, concealing his own name, he entitled Peregrinus against Heretics.

Great therefore and truly divine was the example of those same blessed men, and by every true Catholic to be remembered with unwearied meditation, who all radiant, like the seven-branched candlestick, with the seven-fold light of the Holy Spirit, exhibited beforehand to posterity a most shining model, how, thenceforward, throughout the whole of errors' vain babblings (2 Timothy 2) the audacity of profane novelty may be repressed by the authority of sacred antiquity. Neither is this anything new: seeing that this custom has ever prevailed in the Church, that the more religious a man was, the more promptly would he go counter to novel inventions. Such examples are everywhere plentiful. But not to be prolix, we will select some one, and this in preference from the apostolic see."

The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 104-105

"As it is not lawful for any to provoke one another or to envy one another (Galatians 5), even so it is not lawful for any to receive besides that which the Catholic Church evangelizes everywhere. . . . To announce, therefore, to Catholic Christians, anything besides that which they have received, never was lawful, nowhere is lawful, never will be lawful; and to anathematize those who announce anything besides that which has been once received, was never other wise than needful, is everywhere needful, ever will be needful. Which being so, is there any one of so great audacity as to teach besides that which has been taught in the Church; or of such levity as to receive (anything) besides that which he has received from the Church? There cries aloud, and he cries aloud again and again, to all men, to all times, and to all places he cries aloud by his epistles, that vessel of election, that master of the Gentiles . . . that if any one announce a new dogma, let him be anathematized. And, on the other side, certain frogs, and gnats and flies, soon to die, such as the Pelagians be, cry aloud in opposition, and this to Catholics, "With us for your authors, with us for your leaders, with us for your interpreters, condemn the things which you did hold, hold the things which you did condemn, reject the ancient faith, the institutes of your fathers, the trust committed to you by your ancestors, and receive" — What, indeed? I shudder to say what, for so presumptuous are they, that they seem to me such as that I could not only not support them, but not even refute them without a grievous crime.

The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 105-106

"Keep the deposit?" Keep it, he says, for fear of thieves, for fear of enemies, lest, whilst men sleep, they oversow cockle upon that good seed of wheat, which the Son of man hath sowed in His field. Keep, he says, "the depositum." What is the depositum? that is that which is committed to thee, not that which is invented by thee; what thou hast received, not what thou hast devised; a thing not of wit, but of doctrine, not of private assumption, but of public tradition; a thing brought to thee, not brought forth by thee; wherein thou must not be an author, but a keeper; not a beginner, but a disciple; not a leader, but a follower. The depositum, he says, keep: preserve the talent of Catholic faith inviolate and untouched: that which is entrusted to thee, let that remain with thee, let that be delivered by thee. Thou hast received gold, return gold; I will not have thee substitute one thing for another; I will not have thee, for gold, place instead either impudently lead, or fraudulently brass; I will not the show, but the very nature of the gold itself. O Timothy, O priest, O expounder, O doctor, if the divine bounty hath made thee sufficient, by wit, by exercise, by learning, be the Beseleel of the spiritual tabernacle, engrave the precious stones of God's doctrine, faithfully set them, etc.. . . . That which before was believed obscurely, let it by thy exposition be understood more clearly. Let posterity rejoice at coming, through thee, to the understanding of that which antiquity, without understanding it, venerated; yet the things which thou hast learned, teach in such wise, that, whilst thou speakest after a new manner, thou speak not new things.

The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 107-108

St. Peter Chrysologus, (A.D. 406 - 450), deacon, bishop of Imola and Ravenna, and Doctor of the Church, his piety and zeal won for him universal admiration, and his oratory merited for him the name Chrysologus, meaning: golden-worded or golden mouth.

"I believe ... in the Holy Catholic Church. Because the Church is in Christ, and Christ is in the Church: whoso, therefore, acknowledges the Church, has confessed that he has believed in the Church."

Serm. lxii. De Symbolo,p. 97.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 110

Pope St. Celestine I, (unknown - A.D. 432), deacon and pope, a Roman in the region of Campania; pope from A.D. 422 to 432, he lived for a while at Milan while actively condemning the Nestorians and Pelagians. He was a zealous defender of orthodoxy.

"Know then plainly, that this is our sentence, that unless you (Nestorius) teach concerning Christ our God, what both the church of Rome, and of Alexandria, and the whole Catholic Church holds, and as the holy church in the great city of Constantinople also has, until your time, most rightly held; and unless by a plain confession, and one under your own hand, you condemn this perfidious novelty which attempts to divide what the holy Scripture unites, and this within ten days counting from the day that this comes to your knowledge, you shall be cast forth from all communion with the Catholic Church."

Ep. xiii. ad Nestor, n. xi. Galland, t. ix.p. 315.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 87-89

Capreolus of Carthage; (c. A.D. late 4th century - A.D. 437), succeeded Aurelius as bishop of Carthage who is known principally as the author of three letters: an Epistula ad Ephesinam synodum addressed to the Council of Ephesus in 431, an Epistula ad Vitalem et Constantium, and an Epistula ad Theodosium Augustum, which reports the death of St. Augustine of Hippo to the emperor Theodosius.

"I, therefore, beseech your holiness (though I have the firmest confidence) that, by the help of God, the Catholic faith will be in all respects firmly established by means of so great a synod (Ephesus) of venerable priests, that, the Holy Spirit working within you, which Spirit, I am confident, will be present in your hearts in all that you do, you shake from you with the force of former authority these novel doctrines, unheard, till now, by ecclesiastical ears, and thus withstand new errors of whatsoever kind they may be; lest the same (errors) which the Church vanquished long ago, and which have sprung up again in these days, and which the authority of the apostolic chair, and the concordant judgment of the priesthood repressed, may, under the pretext of a second examination, seem to recover that voice which was long since quelled. For, should anything happen to be started recently, there needs examination, that it may either be approved as rightly spoken, or repudiated as deserving of condemnation; but matters concerning which judgment has already been passed, if a man suffer such to be called again into question, he will simply seem himself to doubt about the faith which he has hitherto held. Again, as an example to posterity: that what is now defined relative to Catholic faith may be forever firmly received, those matters which have already been defined by the Fathers, must be preserved inviolate. Since whoso would fain that what he has defined concerning the right ordering of faith should continue forever, must needs confirm his sentiments, not by his private authority, but also by the judgment of the more ancient (Fathers); so that, in this manner, proving that what he asserts is, both by the decisions of the ancients and of the moderns, the alone truth of the Catholic Church, — a truth descending from the past ages even to the present, or our days, in simple purity and invincible authority, — and that such truth he both utters, and teaches, and holds". . . . Cyril of Alexandria said, "Let the epistle that has been read from. . . Capreolus of Carthage, be inserted amongst the memorials of faith, containing, as it does, a clear opinion; for he wishes the ancient doctrines to be confirmed, but novel and absurd inventions to be condemned and cast aside." All the bishops exclaimed, "Such are the declarations of us all." This we all proclaim: this is the prayer of all."

Ep. ad Condi. Eph. pp. 490, 491, t. ix. Gallandii.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 99-100

"Although, therefore, the authority itself of the universal Church is quite enough for minds that are Christian and devout, nor is less than this your opinion, as far as I have learnt it from the letter that you have sent me, yet, that I may not appear to refuse the answer required by your question and request, I profess that only those doctrines are true which evangelical antiquity holds and delivers."

Rescript. Vitali et Const, p. 493, col. 1.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 100

St. Isidore of Pelusium, (unknown - A.D. 440), a disciple of St. John Chrysostom, he was born in Egypt to a prominent Alexandrian family. He became an ascetic, and moved to a mountain near the city of Pelusium, in the tradition of the Desert Fathers; known to us for his letters, written to Cyril of Alexandria, Theodosius II, and a host of others. His letters display great judgment, precision, and learning.

"Every writing which has for its aim: true religion is commendable, very beautiful, and deserving of praise. But the sacred volumes, which contain the testimonies of the divine writings, are steps whereby to ascend unto God. All those books, therefore, that are set before thee in the Church of God, receive as tried gold, they having been tried in the fire by the divine Spirit of the truth. But leave aside those which are scattered about without that Church, — even though they may contain some thing persuasive to holiness, to be sought after and kept by those who are free from conflicts like thine."

L. 1, Ep. ccclxix. Cyro, p. 96, Paris. 1638.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 84-85

Salonius, (flourished/wrote A.D. c.445), the son of St. Eucherius and the disciple of Salvian. It is doubtful whether he was bishop of Vienne or of Geneva. He was present at the Council of Orange in 444.

"Remove not the ancient landmarks which thy fathers set." (Proverbs 23) By "the ancient land marks" he means the landmarks of truth and of faith which the Catholic doctors have set from the beginning. This, therefore, does he enjoin, that no one understand (receive) the truth of sacred faith and of evangelic doctrine otherwise than as it has been transmitted by the holy fathers; or, this does he enjoin, that no one interpret the words of the holy Scriptures otherwise than in accordance with the meaning of each (sacred) writer. What are those riches of which he says, "Lift not up thine eyes to riches which thou canst not have, because they shall make to themselves wings, and shall fly towards Heaven ?" (Proverbs 23) . . . Those riches are the hidden things of the Godhead, and the secrets of the heavenly mysteries which thou canst not penetrate, nor art able to understand, because these things are patent to the eagles alone, that is, to the heavenly citizens only are they manifested. "The Heaven above, and the earth beneath, and the heart of kings is unsearchable." (Proverbs 25) As the height of Heaven and the depth of earth cannot be comprehended by men, so neither is the capacity of our feebleness able to comprehend, or to penetrate the depths of the knowledge and meaning of the prophets and Apostles."

Expl. Myst. in Salom. Prov. p. 406, t. viii. Bib. Max. SS. PP.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 118-119

St. Theodotus of Ancyra, (unknown-A.D. 446), bishop and theologian of Ancyra, modern day Ankara, flourished about the year 429, attended the Council of Ephesus in 431, during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II. Although he had earlier supported the Nestorian theology of Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople, Theodotus at the council supported Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria in condemning Nestorius.

"This also did the Fathers, who received from the Apostles the mystery of the incarnation (economy), teach. Thus also did the three hundred and eighteen fathers, assembled at Nicaea, decree, concerning the Only-Begotten. The man that imagines Christ to have two persons, is at variance with their sentiments, at the very time that he is professing to follow them.

[He then quotes the Nicene creed, and adds]

These are the Fathers words, which lay down for us the faith regarding the Only-Begotten, guiding right, as a rule, every human thought. For, as a rule corrects the senses that are being deceived as to the straightness of a line, proving it to be crooked, so does this statement correct the designs of men who seek to pervert our faith by their fancies. Let us follow these (Fathers), believing their words, not weaving doubtful questions. For these men say, "We believe", not "We adduce demonstrations by reasonings." Wherefore, let us also believe that what they have said is so, keeping perfectly aloof from all curious inquiry. For we correct not (or inquire not into) the things that have been already believed by the Fathers, but confess that these things were so done of God, faith confirming our understanding. So that every one who thinks differently from this exposition (of faith), is an alien from Christianity, even though he may seem to say something concerning our faith that has an air of probability. For not even does any one amongst those that are without, demand a demonstration of the first principles of the sciences, but receives those principles on credit from the teachers, without raising a dispute about them. Let, then, this exposition by the Fathers be a first principle of the faith concerning the Only-Begotten Son.

[Having shown how Nestorius, while affecting to follow the Nicene creed, in reality subverted it, he adds]

How pretend you to agree with the Fathers, whom, nevertheless, you will not follow? But, spreading out the authority of the Fathers as a bait to your own error, you thereby draw the simple into your snare."

Expos. Symbol, n. 8, 9, 11, pp. 429-431, t. ix. Gallandii.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 97-98

Arnobius Junior, (flourished in the 5th century, A.D. c.460), also known as Arnobius the Younger, Christian priest or bishop in Gaul, author of a mystical and allegorical commentary on the Psalms, first published by Erasmus in 1522, and by him attributed to the elder Arnobius.

"He who came down from Heaven to assume our humanity, never left Heaven, as it is written, "I will fill Heaven and earth" (Jeremiah 23) And He who ascended into Heaven from these (terrestrial) things, never abandoned us. For so Himself promised, saying, "Behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world." (Matthew 28)

Conflict. Arnob. et Serapion. p. 230, t. viii. Bibl. Maxim. SS. PP.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 115

"The seed of the servants of Christ . . . possess the doctrines of the Apostles, and they who shall love the name of the Lord shall dwell therein" (Psalms 68), that is, in faith, in doctrine, in the Church, in which our Lord Jesus Christ, with the Father, and the Holy Ghost, reigns now and for ages of ages."

Comm. in Ps. lxviii. lb. p. 274.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 115

Applying Psalm 103 to Christ, he says:

"It was then He made His angels spirits. Angels are called in the Latin tongue "nuncii", messengers, and the Gospel is interpreted a good message. He, therefore, then made His angels, that is, the Apostles, spirits, when He said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit, and preach the Gospel to every creature." And He then made them a burning fire, when the Holy Spirit sat, as fire, on each of them. He then founded the earth on its own firmness, recalling, that is, the earthly minds of the Gentiles, — which, in the building of the tower, had been divided, — unto their own firmness. He strengthens them by that one word, Jesus Christ, and He so founds amongst them His Church upon this rock, as that it shall not be moved forever and ever. Let philosophers keep to themselves their fruitless inquiries, and with mighty toil declare that they can discover that the earth has a deep beneath it, wherewith it is clothed as with a garment, but let us turn the point of our discourse to this earth which is founded on the firmness of the Church. For the deep encompasses it. For the depth of the riches of wisdom which encompasses it is fathomless, and above its waters shall the mountains stand. Whoso have their hearts raised on high are mountains, and above them the waters stand. Above them stands the hallowing of Baptism; they stand in the right faith, they are not driven about by every wind of doctrine. . . . This great sea which stretcheth wide its arms, etc., — He would have us know that a great and wide sea, is the whole law of the Old and New Testament. There are creeping things without number; in the law the Jews; in the law the Samaritans; and in the law the Heretics; and in the law the Catholics; in the law, kings, etc.; in the law, little and great, there the ships go, the alone churches of all the provinces, (churches) which bear their passengers to the kingdom of Heaven, from the cities of earth to the city of Jerusalem, our mother. But he that shall be found without a ship in this great sea, "shall meet with the dragon which has been formed to make sport of them" . . . with those, that is, who repudiate the ships, and deliver themselves up, like animals, to the waves and depths of the law, without a master who is a Catholic, and who derives the tradition of the law from the Apostles. Wherefore, because that they are without the Church, wandering about amongst creatures little and great, they meet with a dragon, that so makes sport of them, as that they fancy that they are wiser than the Catholics; and, according to their own fancies, they meet with the destruction of eternal death, when they have sunk into the depths. Let us, therefore, sing unto the Lord our God. . . . Sweet may our praise be unto Him, sweetened with Catholic doctrines, bringing with it nothing from the disease of the Jews, nothing from the disease of the heretics."

Com. in Psalm ciii. t. viii. Bib. Max. PP. pp. 294, 295.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 115-117

"Why build, ye Jews? why watch, ye heretics? In vain do ye this, because the Lord neither builds, nor watches with you. But, ye orthodox, who love Christ in incorruptness, fear not; build in security, because the Lord builds with you. "For you are Gods husbandry, you are Gods building." (1 Corinthians 3): watch, for the Lord not only watches with you, but awakes you when fallen asleep, saying, "Watch with me; watch and pray that ye enter not into temptation (Matthew 26) . . . Why will the Lord come? That, in the resurrection, "the inheritance of the Lord" may be manifested; in which (resurrection) all the sons of God receive an inheritance, if so be that they shall have been the children of His womb, that is, if they shall have been baptized in the font of Catholic faith; there is the womb of the Church which bears children unto Him."

In Psalm. cxxvi. p. 314, Ib.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 117

Applying Psalm 131 and following:

"And now even to this day do the sons of the Apostles sit upon their chairs, having also themselves the power of binding and of loosing. But this has been granted to them because the Lord would not have the synagogue of error, but chose holy Sion, the Church to wit of the right faith, which He, in His foreknowledge, chose for His dwelling, wherein is God's rest forever and ever; where in He dwells, because He hath chosen it; wherein the widows are blessed in chastity; wherein the poor are satisfied with the bread of mercy; wherein the priests are clothed with justice; wherein the saints exult with great joy; wherein the horn is brought forth. Therefore shall it be the kingdom of David. She (the Church) is the light, which, placed upon the candlestick, shines for all who are in the house, that is, who are in the faith of Christ Jesus; in such wise that every assertion, on the other hand, besides hers, shines indeed in words, and carries with it matter for human approbation and admiration; but, "being placed under a bushel", it shines not for those who are in the house, but for those whom it finds under the bushel. For they are under a bushel, they who have the measure of the true faith inverted, who are enemies of the light (lamp), which the Holy Ghost, by means of the Apostles, prepared for Christ our Lord. Her enemies, therefore, has He clothed with the confusion of anathema, and upon Christ does her sanctification flourish throughout all ages."

In Ps. cxxxi. p. 31, Ib.
The Faith of Catholics, Volume 1, page 117-118



The Catholic Church's authority come directly from Christ Himself who founded His Church on
St. Peter and His human successors. (Acts 1:20-26) The way or means by which we arrive at the knowledge of the divine truths, is attention and submission to the voice of the Pastors of the Church: a Church established by Christ for the instruction, of all, and for all, in the world; visibly continuing in the succession of Pastors and people through all ages. Broader marks of the Church are:

      • Unity (One)
      • Visibility (We can tell with our senses, where the faith is.)
      • Indefectibility (That it cannot fail.)
      • Succession from the Apostles (Apostolic)
      • Universality (Catholic), and
      • Sanctity (Holy)

Some may question this last mark, Sanctity, but the Church is holy because it consist of Jesus' Mystical Body, Him being the Head. The Church is endowed with a sanctity that is real, though imperfect. In her members, perfect holiness is something yet to be acquired and something its members freely choose to grow toward, or not.


The Church's Scriptures that support the Authority of the Church:


Peter Confesses Jesus as the Christ

18 And I also say to you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it.

Matthew 16:18

Dealing with a Sinning Brother

17 And if he will not hear them, tell it to the church. And if he will not hear them, tell the Church. And if he will not hear the Church, let him be to thee as the heathen and publican.

Matthew 18:17

The Great Commission

18 "And Jesus coming, spoke to them, saying: All power is given to me in Heaven and in earth. 19 Go therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; 20 teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: And behold, I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world."

Matthew 28:18-20

Jesus tells His first Apostles and disciples to go everywhere and preach His Saving Gospel.

15 "And He said to them : Go ye into the whole world and preach the Gospel to every creature."

Mark 16:15

Listening to the Apostles and their successors is equal to listening and obeying Christ and His Father.

16 "He that heareth you, heareth me; and he that despiseth you, despiseth me; and he that despiseth me, despiseth Him that sent me."

Luke 10:16

Jesus Predicts Peter's Denial but prays for his (singular) faith.

31 "And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you (second person plural pronoun, meaning "all of you") that he may sift you as wheat: 32 But I have prayed for thee (singular, Peter) that thy faith fail not: and thou being once converted, confirm thy brethren."

Luke 22:31-32

Jesus tells His Apostles that His Father will send them the Holy Spirit, so they will be able to abide with Him forever.

16 "And I will ask the Father, and He shall give you another Paraclete, that He may abide with you forever, 17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, nor knoweth Him; but you shall know Him, because He shall abide with you, and shall be in you. 18 I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you."

John 14:16-18

The Holy Spirit that the Lord will send His Apostles will teach them the truth.

13 "But when He, the Spirit of truth, comes, He will teach you all truth. For He shall not speak of Himself: but whatever He shall hear, He shall speak; and the things that are to come He will show you."

John 16:13

Paul goes to various new Christian churches encouraging them to keep to the commandments and teachings of the Apostles.

28 "For it hath seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us, to lay no farther burden upon you than these necessary things. 41 And he (Paul) went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches: commanding them to keep the precepts of the Apostles and ancients."

Acts 15:28, 41.

Paul tells the new found churches to heed the voice of their bishops and obey them.

28 "Take heed to yourselves and to the whole flock, wherein the Holy Ghost hath placed you bishops, to rule the Church of God, which He hath purchased with His own blood."

Acts 20:28

Each member in the Church has their own calling.

28 "And God indeed hath set some in the Church, first Apostles, secondly Prophets, thirdly Doctors: 29 Are all Apostles? Are all Prophets? Are all Doctors?"

1 Corinthians 12:28,29

Our callings in the Church perfect us and help ensure that we will not be persuaded by unbelievers.

11 "And He gave some apostles, and some prophets, and other some evangelists, and other some pastors and doctors: 12 for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: 13 until we all meet in the unity of faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the age of the fullness of Christ: 14 that henceforth we be no more children tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine by the wickedness of men, by cunning craftiness by which they lie in wait to deceive."

Ephesians 4:11-14

The (Catholic) Church is the pillar and foundation of truth.

14 "These things I write to thee, hoping that I shall come to thee shortly. 15 But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of truth."

1 Timothy 3:14-15

The author of Hebrews encourages the faithful to pray and obey their prelates or priests who have spoken the Word of God to us.

7 "Remember your prelates who have spoken the word of God to you; whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation. Obey your prelates, and be subject to them. For they watch as being to render an account of your souls."

Hebrews 13:7

Test what you hear from others and compared what they say to what the Church teaches, to see if what they say is true.

1 "Dearly beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits if they be of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world. 6 We are of God. He that knoweth God heareth us. He that is not of God, heareth us not. By this we know the spirit of truth and the spirit of error."

1 John 4:1,6

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