Thanks for the question.
You raise questions that the Church has wrestled with and that probably everyone else has to one degree or another.
How I have resolved the question is simple: I no longer believe in evolution, at least not the way it is posited as the source of human development. I hold to micro, not macro evolution. In other words, species can adapt and mutate (by design), but the evidence is lacking for inter-species mutation.
While the Church leaves us latitude to hold to the evolutionary theory so long as it recognizes the creator of all things, Pius XII dropped a bombshell on the Church with Humani Generis, No. 37 in the 50's when he said in essence,
"it is in no way apparent how the doctrine of original sin can be reconciled with the notion of multiple parents."
This makes the notion of multiple parents irreconcilable with revelation.
The starting point for me in understanding the gaping flaws in evolution, and the positive evidence for design came from the work of Michael Behe in Darwin's Black Box. He showed how evolution cannot account for irreducible complexity in biochemical systems that are the fundamental buildings blocks of life. Natural selection is predicated on adaptations that happen incrementally, essentially improving the beneficial function of the mutant — but minimal functionality must be present for a system to adapt; so, take away a part of the mousetrap and nothing serves as a (functional) basis for adaptation, because all function is dependent of the synchronic contribution of each part. Read his book (it's deeply scientific, but still digestible) to get the full argument.
Also, Fr. Michael Spitzer has done great work to show how quantum physics and science now shows how (according to a growing trend in science), creationism is more plausible as a explanatory tool than any other theory for the universe. Check out his website at Magis Center.
Likewise, the Discovery institute has published many peer reviewed works that give support to design. You can even find some very useful short videos as a primer to these topics on PragerU here:
I would suggest visiting their website or downloading the PragerU app to see many more shorts related.
Lastly, the doctrine of original sin, which requires an original set of parents, is central to the Gospel. Christ is the "new Adam", and likewise, Mary, the "new Eve." This fundamental correlation is not some fanciful theology, or a mere allegory, but recognition of a true design of our Heavenly Father in the plan of salvation.
Yes, the creation account is full of allegories, but that doesn't preclude real truths of history as well, such as there being:
- first parents
- a fall, and
- an expulsion from the paradise of Eden, etc.
It has been true for most of the last century, if you profess belief in design, rather than evolution, you would be considered ignorant and backward, but that trend is changing as the science becomes more supportive of design. The tables are turning, so do some homework and think about expanding your horizon to see the newer arguments from science.